Ammi. Large ammi fruits
Specification & Spread
Large ammi fruits — fructus ammi majoris
Large ammi — ammi majus l.
Carrot family – apiaceae (umbelliferae)
Other Names: Canadian cumin
It is an annual herbaceous bare plant with straight, grooved, in the upper part of the branching hollow stem up to 150 cm tall.
The leaves are twice-thrice pinnate on broad lanceolate, toothed segments along margin.
The inflorescence is a complex umbrella up to 10 cm in diameter, consisting of 50 rays of unequal length, which, when ripe, are compressed into «nests». The leaflets of the cover and covers are numerous and whole.
The flowers are small, petals are white.
The fruit is compressed from the sides, naked cremocarp, splitting into two mericarps.
It blooms from late June - July and until September. The fruits ripen in September.
Spreading. Mediterranean countries. In the wild form is rare, only on the southern coast of the Crimea. For medicinal purposes it is cultivated in the Krasnodar Territory (Russia), in Ukraine and in Turkmenistan.
The fruits contain furocoumarins (up to 2.2%):
- xantotoxin and
- Bergapten in an approximate ratio of 5: 3: 2.
It also contains:
Harvesting and storage of raw materials
Harvesting. It is harvested during the period of mass ripening of fruits on the central umbrelas. The plants are mown, dried and threshed. The raw materials are purified from impurities.
Storage. It is stored in a dry and well-ventilated area in a dark place.
External signs of raw materials
The raw materials are mature fruits - cremocarps, easily disintegrating into two semi-fetus mericarpia.
Mericarpia is oblong-ovate with five longitudinal, weakly protruding ribs, 1.5-3 mm long, 1-2 mm wide.
The colour of fruits is reddish-brown, less often greyish-brown. The taste is bitter and slightly burning.
Properties and application
Pharmacotherapeutic group. Photosensitizing agent.
The pharmacological properties of ammy
The main active ingredients of large ammi - furocoumarins - sensitize the skin to the action of light and stimulate the formation in it, under the influence of ultraviolet irradiation, the melanin pigment.
Ammifurin in combination with ultraviolet radiation helps to restore skin pigmentation.
In addition, furocoumarins have:
- capillary strengthening,
- some sedative,
- choleretic and
- diuretic action,
- slightly tone up the uterus and intestines.
Galenic forms from the plant irritate the kidneys, and the mixture of furocoumarins (ammifurin) is relatively low toxic.
Application of ammi
Even in ancient Egypt, the patients with «white spots» were taking inside the crushed fruits of ammi and then exposed the skin to solar irradiation. About the healing properties of ammi was known in the XIII century. Arab doctors used it to treat leucoderma, combined with solar irradiation. It is used for vitiligo, nesting and total alopecia, psoriasis, neurodermatitis, lichen planus.
With limited skin lesions, the rashes are smeared with ammifurin solution, followed by irradiation.
For extensive diffuse processes, ammifurin intake, lubrication and irradiation are prescribed. It is used as an antifungal agent for the treatment of ringworm.
- acute gastritis,
- gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer,
- liver cirrhosis,
- acute and chronic nephritis,
- diabetes mellitus,
- arterial hypertension,
- decompensated endocrine diseases,
- blood diseases,
- chronic heart failure,
- malignant and benign tumors,
- multiple pigmented nevi,