Specification & Spread
Anabasis shoots — cormi anabasidis
Apophillous anabasis — anabasis aphylla l.
Goosefoot family — chenopodiaceae
Other names: barnyard grass, cockspur.
Apophillous (barnyard) anabasis is a xerophytic subshrub 25-75 (120) cm tall and growing as a flattened spherical shrub up to 140 cm in diameter.
The stems are numerous, woody at the bottom and branching from the base.
The leaves are almost undeveloped, cataphyll, barely noticeable, wide-triangular, fused in the nodes of the stem in pairs in short inside the pilose axil.
The flowers are inconspicuous, small (up to 2.5 mm long), regular, pentamerous, with a simple perianth. It is collected in dense spikelike inflorescences.
The fruits are round, flattened laterally, one-seeded, alate, with rather juicy fleshy pericarp.
It blooms in July - August, the seeds ripen in late October.
Spreading. Apophillous anabasis - Eastern Mediterranean species. It is found on the flat territory of Kazakhstan, in the republics of Central Asia, in Azerbaijan and in the south-eastern regions of the European part of the Russian Federation. The main source of raw materials is Chimkent, Dzhambul and Kzyl-Orda regions of Kazakhstan.
Habitat. It grows on clay and loamy saline soils of desert and semi-desert.
The chemical composition of anabasis In the softwood green shoots of apophillous anabasis contains 2-4% of alkaloids:
- lupinin and others.
Anabazin is at least 60% of the amount of alkaloids.
In addition to alkaloids, in the aerial parts saponins and flavonoids are contained.
Harvesting and storage of raw materials
Harvesting. The harvesting of raw materials is carried out in the second half of summer and autumn either manually (using a sickle) or with special machines, cutting off the upper annual green parts of the shoots 20-25 cm long.
Security measures. For the protection of thickets it is necessary to leave at least a third of shoots on a bush with a manual harvesting, with a mechanized harvesting - an untouched strip 5 m wide. Harvesting on one array is possible in 3-5 years.
Drying. At first, the cutting shoots are dried in small, loosely folded heaps. After 2-3 days it is folded into larger stacks and then it is dried in firepots and passed through a thresher. As a result, the shoots break up into segments - internodes. While harvesting the raw materials, threshing and packaging, the mouth and nose should be protected with a gauze-cotton bandage, put on glasses, work in overalls, as the raw material is toxic(!).
External signs of raw materials
The pieces of shoots is up to 50 mm long, mostly broken up into segments, non-lignified, rigid, bald, cylindrical, with underdeveloped blunt leaves, barely protruding in the form of two triangular paleas and fused into a short axil.
The colour is from grayish green to yellowish.
The smell is weak and peculiar.
The taste is not determined. All parts of the plant are poisonous(!).
Properties and application
The pharmacological properties of anabasis
In terms of its pharmacological properties, anabazine is H-cholinomimetic (gangliostimulant), close to nicotine, cytisine and lobeline and it reduces craving for smoking.
In large doses it has analgesic action and reflexively tones the respiratory centerр.
Application of anabasis
It weakens craving for smoking, eliminates vegetative and other disorders during nicotine withdrawal. The action is caused by the excitation of central H-cholinergic receptors (replacement of a strong drug with a weaker one).
The plant is highly poisonous!
Apophillous anabasis contains an alkaloid - anabazin - a powerful poison that has the ability to penetrate the skin, causing poisoning (manifested by drooling, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, palpitations, and increased breathing);. 2-3 drops are considered a lethal dose for a person. In case of poisoning, gastric lavage, artificial respiration (if necessary), taking emetics, activated carbon are recommended. In addition, symptomatic therapy is carried out, saline, laxative and cleansing enemas are prescribed.
Anabasis-based medication is contraindicated in atherosclerosis, severe hypertension and bleeding.