Anise. Anise oil and fruits
Specification & Spread
Anise fruits — fructus anisi vulgaris
Anise oil – oleum anisi
Anise — pimpinella anisum l. ( = anisum vulgare gaertn.)
Carrot family — apiaceae (umbelliferae)
Other names: aniseed, anise apple tree, anise apples.
It is an annual plant up to 50-60 cm tall.
The stem is erect, rounded, branched at the top.
The radical and lower stem leaves are long-petiolate, whole or shallowly three-lobed, rounded-bud-shaped, with large dentate margin; the middle ones are also long petiolate, tripled, with bilobate lateral segments, the final segment is three-lobed.
The upper leaves are three- and five-dissected into narrow linear segments.
The flowers are small pentamerous, white, gathered in an inflorescence complex umbrella.
The fruit is a non-decaying templar.
It blooms in June - July, the fruits ripen in August.
Spreading. The origin of anise - Mediterranean countries. It is cultivated in many countries. In Russia, cultivated since the 30s of the XIX century.
Habitat. It grows on fertile soils.
The chemical composition of anise
The fruits contain:
- essential oil from 1 to 3%, less often to 6%.
The oil contains:
- anethole (up to 80-90%),
- methylhavicol (up to 10%),
- anise aldehyde,
- anise ketone,
- anis acid.
In addition, the fruits of anise contain:
- fatty oil (15-30%) and
- protein substances;
A dense part of fatty oil (up to 20%) with a melting point of 29-31 °C has been proposed as a substitute for imported cocoa oil.
Harvesting and storage of raw materials
Harvesting. It is mowed by machines in the period when 60-80% of umbrellas turned brown.
Drying. It is dried in good weather, the mowed plants are left on the field or tied up in bunches and dried under canopies, then it is threshed, cleaned of impurities, the fruits are scattered on a tarpaulin and dried.
External signs of raw materials
The fruits are cremocarps, consisting of two semi-fetuses not separated from each other (mericarps), sometimes disintegrating. The fruits are ovate or reciprocal in shape, slightly flattened laterally, wider to base, narrowed to apex. At the apex there are remnants of a five-toothed calyx and a swollen supra-pedicel disc with two diverging columns.
The surface of the fruit is rough. The outer side of the mericarp is convex, the inner one is flat. Each mericarp has five weakly protruding longitudinal ribs: three of them are on the convex side, two are on the sides. In mericarp one seed, fused with the pericarp. The fruit length is 3-5 mm, the width is 2-3 mm.
The colour of the fruit is yellowish grey or brownish grey.
The smell is strong, fragrant.
The taste is sweet and spicy.
Properties and application
Pharmacotherapeutic group. Expectorant.
The pharmacological properties of anise
Anethol contained in anise oil is secreted through the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, regardless of the route of its administration, and irritates the bronchi, which leads to reflex stimulation of respiration.
Irritation of the respiratory tract activates the ciliated epithelium of the bronchi, increases the secretion of bronchial mucus both directly and by reflex, contributes to the evacuation of sputum.
In addition, anise oil has antiseptic properties.
Anise fruits and its preparations in experiments
- strengthen the function of the glandular epithelium of the bronchi and intestines,
- reduce spasm of smooth muscles of the bronchi and intestines,
- possess anti-inflammatory and diuretic properties,
- stimulate lactation.
Application of anise
As expectorant it is used when
- catarrh of the upper respiratory tract,
- whooping cough.
The pharmacological properties of anise preparations are determined by the content of essential oil, which also has
- anti-inflammatory and
- antispasmodic properties.
Anise fruits and anise oil :
- Improves expectoration of: sputum, its liquefaction
- accelerate the evacuation of sputum,
- have a bactericidal effect.
It is used in:
- whooping cough,
- chronic tonsillitis.
Anise preparations are also recommended for:
- atonic constipation
- and other disorders of the gastrointestinal tract.
Anise fruits are also used when:
- as a mild diuretic,
- antiseptic and
In obstetrics and gynecology, anise fruits are used as:
- as an aid to stimulate labor and with painful menstruation.
Aniseed fruits, having a spicy aroma, are used as a seasoning for meat, fish dishes, used in sauerkraut, pickling cucumbers and tomatoes.
With care during pregnancy or in the presence of gastrointestinal diseases, urinary system in the acute stage.