Specification & Spread
Bean trefoil leaves — folia menyanthidis trifoliatae
Bean trefoil — menyanthes trifoliata l.
Buck-bean family — menyanthaceae
Other names: bogbean, water trefoil, trifol, bitterworm, marsh trefoil.
It is a wetland perennial herbaceous plant with a long creeping rhizome.
The leaves are alternate, vaginal, trifoliate, on long petioles up to 30 cm long. The leaves are elliptical or oblong-obovate, entire, with barely visible water stomata along the edge and bare. The flower arrow is bare, 20-40 cm long, carries a closed brush of pentamerous pinkish-white or white flowers.
The corolla is funnel-shaped, its lobes inside have velvety pubescence.
The fruit is a capsule with small seeds.
It blooms in May - June, the fruits ripen in July - August. The leaf growth is most intense in June.
Spreading. It grows across the European part of the country, in Siberia and the Far East, in the north it enters the Arctic zone. Habitat. It grows on sphagnum and peat bogs, along the banks of rivers, lakes, on marshy meadows, in swampy forests. In some places it forms significant thickets, grows in community with sedges, horsetails, comarum and calla.
The chemical composition of bean trefoil
The main active ingredients of bean trefoil leaves are:
- monoterpenoid amarines - loganin, zoroside, mentiafolin and
- flavonoids - rutin, hyperoside and trifolin.
In addition, it contains:
- up to 3% of tannins,
- some iodine,
- traces of alkaloids.
Harvesting and storage of raw materials
Harvesting. The completely developed leaves are harvested with the remainder of the petiole no longer than 3 cm. The harvesting of the raw materials is carried out after the flowering of the plant, in July - August. When harvesting the raw materials, the young and apical leaves cannot be plucked, since it darkens when it is dried. For drying the harvested leaves for several hours are laid out in the wind, and then loosely laid in an open container and quickly delivered to the place of drying.
Security measures. To avoid the destruction of thickets, do not pull out plants with rhizome. The repeated harvests on the same places are possible no more than in 2-3 years.
Drying. It is dried in attics, in sheds and other well-ventilated areas or in dryers at temperatures up to 40-50 °C. The leaves are laid out in a thin layer, occasionally turned over. The end of drying is determined by the fragility of the stalks. The blackened leaves, petioles longer than 3 cm and impurities are removed from the dried material.
Storage. The raw materials are stored in dry, cool, well-ventilated areas on racks.
External signs of raw materials
Whole raw materials
The leaves are whole or partially crushed, thin, naked trifoliate with the remainder of the petiole up to 3 cm long. The separate leaves are elliptical or oblong-obovate, entire or sometimes with occasional teeth, 4–10 cm long, 2.5–7 cm wide. The colour is green. The smell is weak. The taste is very bitter.
Milled raw materials
The pieces of leaves are of various shapes and passing through a sieve with holes with a diameter of 7 mm.
The colour is green. The smell is weak. The taste is very bitter.
Properties and application
Pharmacotherapeutic group. Means for stimulating appetite, choleretic, sedative agent (appetite stimulant).
The pharmacological properties of bean trefoil
Bean trefoil leaves:
- stimulate the function of the digestive tract due to the presence of bitterness - natural physiological stimulants of saliva, gastric juice, bile and digestive enzymes;
- possess the easy laxative property.
It stimulates the secretion of bile, which simultaneously with the presence of organic compounds of iodine in the leaves of bean trefoil prevents the accumulation of cholesterol in the body, acts anti-sclerotic.
In addition, bean trefoil has:
- antiseptic and
- antipyretic effect.
Recently, the sedative effect of bean trefoil preparations has been revealed.
Application of bean trefoil
The preparations of bean trefoil apply:
- with gastritis with low acidity,
- constipation and
- as bitterness to whet your appetite,
- as well as a choleretic agent for chronic cholecystitis, cholangitis, cholelithiasis.
Bean trefoil is used in early pregnancy toxicosis as:
- antiemetic and
- improving the digestion agent.
Due to the significant iodine content, the leaves of the watch are used
- as an anti-sclerotic agent,
- at disturbances of a heart rhythm against an atherosclerosis,
- with thyrotoxicosis and menopausal disorders.
- Increased acidity of the stomach,
- peptic ulcer,
- excessive susceptibility to iodine and during individual intolerance,
- pregnancy and lactation.