Specification & Spread
There are shrubs from 0.7 to 2.5 m tall with spikes on the shoots.
The leaves are alternate, unpaired and pinnatal. It has with 5-7 pairs of oblong-elliptical or ovate, sharply serrated lateral leaflets and two stipules along the edge. The flowers are regular, large and pentamerous. The sepals are whole or pinnate. The petals are from pale pink to dark red.
The fruit is a cynorrhodon of various forms and consists of overgrown, fleshy, when ripe juicy hypanthia and the numerous fruitlets - nuts which are enclosed in it (Fig. 4.1). At the apex, the species of the Cinnamomeae section retain a calyx of five upward oriented sepals. The species of the Caninae section have sepals which are directed downward, it falls off when the fruit ripens, and at the apex remains a pentagonal platform. It blooms in May - June, the fruits ripen in August - September. The raw materials are harvested from high vitamin and low vitamin of brier.
Section Cinnamomeae DC.
Сinnamon rose — Rosa majalis Herrm. (R. cinnamomea L). The shrub is 1-2 m tall, the burrs on flowering branches are located in pairs at the base of the petiole and bent down. The flowers are pink-purple. The fruits are spherical, orange-red, with sepals directed upwards. It grows almost throughout the European part of Russia, in Western and Eastern Siberia to Lake Baikal. High vitamin content: 4-14% of ascorbic acid.
Prickly wild rose
Prickly wild rose — Rosa acicularis Lindl. It is a shrub up to 2 m tall, the burrs are numerous, thin, straight and resemble bristles. The leaves are from pubescence grey. The flowers are pink. The fruits are oblong, narrowed to both ends, red-orange, with sepals directed upwards. It grows throughout the forest zone of Russia. High vitamin content: 4-14% ascorbic acid.
Ramanas rose — Rosa rugosa Thunb. It is a shrub height of about 2 m, the burrs are numerous and straight. The leaves are strongly wrinkled. The flowers are pink-purple, 6-8 cm in diameter. The fruits are large, spherical, red and have erect sepals. It grows in the Far East, Kamchatka, Sakhalin. It is widely cultivated. High vitamin content: 3-6% of ascorbic acid.
Dahurian rose — Rosa davurica Pall. It is a shrub about 1.5 m tall with curved burrs. The flowers are dark pink. The fruits are globose, orange, with sepals directed upwards. It grows in the southern regions of Eastern Siberia and the Far East. High vitamin content: 3-18% of ascorbic acid.
Begger's rose — Rosa beggeriana Schrenk. It is a shrub 1-2.5 m tall, the burrs are large, sickle-curved. The young leaves are purple in colour. The flowers are white and have 30 pieces in inflorescences. The fruits are red, spherical, resemble a pea, about 1 cm in diameter with falling sepals. It grows in Central Asia. High vitamin content: 5-18% of ascorbic acid.
Fedchenko's rose — Rosa fedtschenkoana Regel. It is a shrub up to 6 m tall with large, hard and straight burrs. The flowers are white 8-9 cm in diameter, gathered in a thick «snowball». The fruits are oval, orange-red, up to 5 cm long. It grows in Central Asia. High vitamin content: 6% of ascorbic acid.
Kokandian rose — Rosa kokanica (Regel) Regel ex Juz. It is a shrub about 2 m tall. The flowers are golden yellow. The fruits are spherical and red-black. It grows mainly in Central Asia. Low vitamin form: 0.5-1% of ascorbic acid. Caninae DC section.
Dog-rose — Rosa canina L. It is a shrub 2 m tall. The burrs are rare and sickle-curved. The flowers are pink. The fruits are oblong-elliptical, red-orange, with falling sepals directed downwards. It grows in the middle lane and southern regions of the European part of Russia, the Crimea, the Caucasus, and Central Asia. Low vitamin form: 1% of ascorbic acid.
Tomentose rose — Rosa tomentosa Smith. It is a shrub 1-3 m tall. The burrs are bent downwards. The flowers are pink. There are 3-5 of it in the shields. The fruits are oval, orange-red with falling sepals directed downwards. It grows in the European part of the country and in the Caucasus. Low vitamin form: 0.5-1% of ascorbic acid.
Small-flowered rose — Rosa micrantha Borrer ex Smith. It is a shrub 2 m tall with curved burrs. The flowers are pink and white. The fruits are spherical and orange-red. It grows in the European part of the country and in the Caucasus. Low vitamin form: 0.5-1% of ascorbic acid.
It grows in forests, among light forests, on mountain slopes, in river valleys, in fields, near roads, in separate bushes or groups.
Ramanas rose and cinnamon rose are mainly cultivated in the European part of the country. The high-vitamin varieties have been developed. The active fruiting is from 2 to 6 years.
Brier fruits are polyvitamin raw materials.
In the fruits of brier there are detected:
- ascorbic acid (the average content of ascorbic acid in fruits is 1200-1500 mg% (0.2-1% in low vitamin types, in high vitamin ones - up to 4-5%).)
- vitamins of group B, P, K.
The seeds contain a fatty oil which is rich in carotenoids and vitamin E and consists of acids:
The study of the flavonoid substances composition showed the presence of:
- flavonols (quercetin, kaempferol, isoquercitrin),
- catechins (epigallocatechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin gallate),
- anthocyanin substances.
Pectic substances, malic and citric acids, salts of potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and iron are found in the pulp of brier.
Harvesting and storage of raw materials
Harvesting. The fruits are harvested in the phase of medium and full ripening in the autumn until frost. The frozen fruits lose its vitamins and are easily destroyed during the harvest. The fruit cutting off should be taken in protective gloves and sleeves of thick or canvas fabric.
Security measures. It is forbidden to break, especially cut the inaccessible branches and stems. It is useful to cultivate natural habitats by replanting and seeding.
Drying. It is dried in dryers at a temperature of 80-90 °C with good ventilation. The raw materials are laid out in a thin layer and often mixed. The end of the drying set of fragility of the fruit.
Storage. It is stored in a dry and well-ventilated area and packed in bags or bundles, often looking for the raw materials for infestation by pests.
External signs of raw materials
Whole raw materials.
There are whole fruits which are peeled from the sepals and peduncles and have various shapes: from spherical, ovoid or oval to highly elongated spindle; the fruit length is 0.7-3 cm, the diameter is 0.6-1.7 cm. At the top of the fruit there is a small round hole or pentagonal platform.
The fruits consist of overgrown, fleshy, when ripe juicy receptacle (hypanthia) and numerous fruitlets - nuts which are enclosed in its cavity. The walls of the dried fruit are hard, brittle, the outer surface is shiny, less often matte, more or less wrinkled. Inside it is covered with long and very stiff bristly hairs.
The nuts are small, oblong and have weakly pronounced edges. The fruit colour is from orange-red to brownish-red. The nuts are light yellow, sometimes brownish. The smell is absent.
The taste is sour-sweet and slightly astringent.
A mixture of particles is passing through a sieve with holes which are 2 mm in diameter. The colour ranges from orange-red to brown with light yellow and dark brown patches. The smell is absent. The taste is sour-sweet and slightly astringent.
Properties and application
It has a tonic effect:
- stimulates nonspecific resistance of the body,
- enhances tissue regeneration and hormone synthesis
- reduces vascular permeability,
- takes part in carbohydrate and mineral metabolism,
- has anti-inflammatory properties.
It has an immunostimulatory effect (against humoral and cellular immunity);
It has a choleretic effect (due to the presence of organic acids and flavonoids).
Application of brier
It is applied with:
- hypovitaminosis C and P (treatment and prevention),
- asthenic syndrome,
- immunodeficiency states.
The fruits of low-vitamin varieties are used only as a choleretic agent in the complex therapy of calculous cholecystitis, chronic hepatitis and hepatocholecystitis.
It is contradicted with peptic ulcer and gastritis.
With care you need to take it in heart disease, limit the reception in cases of various heart diseases, such as endocarditis (inflammation of the endocardium, or the inner lining of the heart).
The reception of the composition is undesirable for persons suffering from circulatory failure. There is also a distinction in admission for those suffering from hypotonic disease and high blood pressure. For the first, it is recommended to take the alcoholic infusions of brier and the application of water infusion is contraindicated, for the second - everything is exactly the opposite. That is, a person with an elevated arterial takes water infusion, and alcohol is prohibited to him/her.
In addition, the long-term treatment of brier has a negative effect on liver function, up to non-infectious jaundice.