Specification & Spread
Burnet rhizomes and roots – rhizomata ет radices sanguisorbae
Garden burnet — sanguisorba officinalis l.
Rose family — rosaceae
Other names: cow clover, bebrenec, rupturewort, pimpernelle, greater burnet, bloodwort, owl grass, blackgrass, nipples.
It is a perennial herbaceous plant up to 20-100 cm tall.
The rhizome is thick horizontal with numerous long roots.
The stems are erect, hollow, ribbed and branched at the top.
The basal leaves are long-stemmed, the stem is almost sessile, all unpaired and pinnately-compound with 3-25 folioles. The folioles are oblong-ovate with acuminate edge. It is dark green above and grey-green below.
The flowers are androgynous with a simple quadrifid perianth, dark purple. The inflorescences are gathered in dense short oval-shaped inflorescences - an anthodium sitting on long straight peduncles.
The fruit is an uninucula.
It blooms in June - August. The fruits ripen in August - September.
Spreading. It is the plant of northern and middle latitudes. It is widespread throughout Western and Eastern Siberia, the Urals and the Far East. In the European part of the country is less common. It grows in the Caucasus and Crimea - in the mountains.
Habitat. It grows in the forest and forest-steppe zones on dry and flood meadows, in meadow steppes, along the edges of birch and mixed forests, in thickets of bushes, along the banks of ponds and marshes. In the Southern Transbaikalia forms the so-called crested steppes.
The chemical composition of burnet. The brunet rhizomes and roots contain:
polyphenol complex, which includes tannins (up to 23%), ellagic and gallic acids, pyrogallol, catechin and gallocatechin;
It contains saponins: sanguisorbin and lossin (up to 4%); starch (up to 29%);
essential oil (1.8%);
calcium oxalate (up to 5%).
Harvesting and storage of raw materials
Harvesting. The rhizomes and roots of burnet are harvested in the fall during the fruiting period (late August - September) by hand, digging out with shovels. The dug rhizomes and roots are shook off the ground, cut off the stems and washed in running water in large wicker baskets by shaking. The washed raw material is dried, then the remnants of the stems are removed to the base of the rhizomes, cut into pieces up to 20 cm long and delivered to the place of drying.
Security measures. For renewal of thickets it is necessary to leave 1-2 plants per 10 m2. The repeated harvesting in the same areas should be carried out with a frequency of 7-10 years. At the site of the excavated underground organs, the seeds are poured into the hole for regeneration and covered with the ground.
Drying. It is dried the raw material of the blood burner in the sun, under sheds or in rooms with good ventilation, spreading it out in a thin layer on wire nets, fabrics, paper, and occasionally stirring. The heat drying temperature is not higher than 50-60 ºС.
Storage. It is stored in a dry and dark place.
External signs of raw materials
Whole raw material
The raw material consists of lignified rhizomes, whole or cut into pieces, with roots extending from it. The separate large roots are allowed.
The rhizomes is up to 12 cm long, 0.5-2.5 cm in diameter, cylindrical in form and woody;
The roots are smooth, less often longitudinally wrinkled, up to 20 cm long, 0.3-1.5 cm thick.
Outside the rhizomes and roots are dark brown, almost black in colour, on the fracture it is yellowish or brownish-yellowish.
It is odorless. The taste is astringent.
Milled raw material
The pieces of rhizomes and roots of various shapes is passing through a sieve with 7 mm diameter holes.
Properties and application
Tannins and polyphenols determine the astringent, anti-inflammatory and hemostatic effect of rhizomes and groin root. The preparations of burnet are effective at giardiasis, trichomonas colpitis, kill the causative agents of dysentery, typhoid fever and paratyphoid.
Application of burnet
The decoction of rhizomes and roots of burnet is used as an astringent and antiseptic for gastrointestinal diseases (enterocolitis, diarrhea of various etiologies), as a styptic for bleeding (hemorrhoids, dysentery), for gargling, for treating stomatitis and gingivitis. It is widely used in veterinary medicine.
Hypersensitivity to the drug, pregnancy, lactation, children's age up to 18 years.
With caution: with increased blood clotting, thromboembolism (in history).