Burnut. Ground burnut herb
Specification & Spread
Ground burnut herb — herba tribuli terrestris
Ground burnut — tribulus terrestris l.
Zygophyllaceae — zygophyllaceae
It is an annual herbaceous plant with a thin straight root and prostrate on the ground, from the base of branched stems 10-60 (120) cm long.
The leaves are opposite, pair-pinnately-compound, with 6-8 pairs of small oblong leaves, 3-8 cm long, 1.5-2 cm wide.
The flowers are located in the axils of the leaves on short pedicels, single, few, small, up to 1.2 cm in diameter, with a yellowish corolla.
The perianth is double, regular, pentamerous, and has 10 stamens, a coenocar gynoecium of 5 accreted carpels. When ripe, the fruit disintegrates into 5 stellately located angular «fruitlets», bearing on the back 4 long, hard and sharp spines, as well as numerous hillocks and spines. In favorable conditions, the plant blooms and bears fruit from spring to frost.
Spreading. It grows in dry steppes in the south of the European part of the country and Western (Altai) and Eastern (Dauria) Siberia, in the Caucasus. The species is especially abundant in Central Asia and in the central regions of Tuva.
Habitat. It grows in weedy places along wastelands, along roads, in river valleys, often on sandy soils, like weed of melons and gourds, on sandy beaches and shell rocks, along roadsides and on railway embankments. Burnut grows well in culture.
The chemical composition of burnut
Burnut herb contains:
- steroid saponins (trillin, dioscin, gracillin, protodioscin, etc.),
- alkaloids and
Harvesting and storage of raw materials
Harvesting. The herb is harvested throughout the summer. The plants are pulled out with roots or chop off the above-ground portion near the surface of the soil, leaving the roots in the ground.
Security measures. On the same arrays, the harvesting is possible for several years in a row, because due to their long-term fruiting, some of the fruits have time to ripen and crumble before starting the raw materials.
Drying. The herb is laid out in a loose layer no thicker than 20 cm on paper or fabric. It can be dried in dryers.
The workpiece must be carried out in mittens, since the prickly fruits of a plant easily dig into the skin, injuring it.
Storage. It is stored in a dry and well-ventilated area.
External signs of raw materials
It is a mixture of whole or partially crushed leaves, stems, roots, as well as whole or broken fruits.
The stems are up to 60 cm long and striated. The leaves are oblong, partially coagulated or broken, up to 1.2 cm long, up to 0.5 cm wide, with whitish pubescence visible from the underside, visible in the magnifying glass. The fruits are fractional consisting of 5 stellately located fruitlets, up to 2 cm in diameter, with a wrinkled shell and sharp hard spikes; less common are separate triangular fruits with 2-4 spines.
The colour of the stems is greenish yellow, the leaves are green, and the petioles and fruits are light green.
The smell is weak and peculiar.
Properties and application
Pharmacotherapeutic group. Hypolipidemic, hypocholesterolemic and hypotensive agent.
The pharmaceutical properties of the burnut
The extracts of ground burnut herb:
- increase bile secretion
- stimulate the secretion of gastric juice,
- increase intestinal motility.
The pharmacological studies of tribusponin, which is the sum of steroid saponins, have shown that the drug retards the development and course of experimental cholesterol atherosclerosis in animals.
The anti-sclerotic effect of steroid saponins is explained by its interaction with plasma lipids. In the mechanism of lowering the level of cholesterol in the blood, the choleretic and stimulating peristalsis action of tribusponin, which promotes the elimination of cholesterol from the body, does not last.
Tribusponin affects the cardiovascular system:
- slows heart rate,
- increases myocardial contractility,
- lengthens the diastole of the heart,
- improves coronary circulation,
- lowers blood pressure
- dilates blood vessels.
Tribusponin has anticoagulant properties:
- slows down clotting time and
- reduces prothrombin index.
- increases biliary excretion
- increases intestinal motility,
- has diuretic properties. No local irritant.
Application of burnut
Tribusponin is used for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes when:
- coronary heart disease and
- hypertensive disease.
Tribusponin treatment of patients with atherosclerosis is most effective with a high content of low-density lipoprotein.
When treating tribusponin with atherosclerosis in patients with hypertension, normalization of sleep, reduction or cessation of headache, tinnitus, and lowering of blood pressure are noted.
In patients with diabetes on the background of atherosclerosis, tribusponin in combination with hypoglycemic preparations has a positive effect on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.
Tribusponin is also used in atherosclerosis obliterans of limb vessels.
- Low blood pressure,
- bleeding tendency,
- individual intolerance,
- pregnancy and lactation.