Chokeberry. Black chokeberry fruits
Specification & Spread
Fresh black chokeberry fruits — fructus aroniae melanocarpae recentes
Black chokeberry — aronia melanocarpa (michx.) Elliot
Rose family — rosaceae
It is a deciduous shrub up to 2.5 m tall.
Numerous shoots. An annual shoots are red-brown, older shoots are dark grey.
The root system is powerful, superficial, fibrous, consists of vertically and horizontally positioned roots.
The leaves are alternate, simple whole, obovoid-shaped with serrate edge, 4-8 cm long and 3-5 cm wide, bright green in summer, reddening in autumn; the upper side of the leaves is leathery, glossy, smooth, dark green, the bottom is slightly pubescent with a whitish-matte shade. The flowers are regular, pentamerous, gathered by 12-35 pieces in dense corymbose inflorescences; the petals are white or slightly pinkish.
The fruit is a spherical or slightly elongated, apple-shaped, up to 1.5 cm in diameter, naked, black, shiny, sometimes with a bluish bloom, less often dark red, juicy, sour-sweet with an astringent flavour. It blooms in May -June, approximately 2 weeks after leaf blooming, flowering lasts 12-15 days. Later, the blooming of chokeberry eliminates the possibility of damage to the flowers by spring frosts, which ensures the annual fruiting of this plant.
Chokeberry is a self-pollinated plant. The fruits ripen in August -September, do not crumble to frost. The productive age of the branches is not more than 10 years. The restoration of the bush is due to the annual shoots and root shoots.
The species naturally grows in North America is widely cultivated in Russia.
The fruits of chokeberry contain:
- P-vitamin complex consisting of:
- flavonoids (rutin, quercitrin, hesperidin, quercetin),
- as well as a significant amount of ascorbic acid (up to 110 mg%),
- organic acids, etc.
Up to 4% iodine is found in the fruit pulp (on dry flesh without seeds).
Harvesting and storage of raw materials
Harvesting. The harvest of ripe fruits is carried out in September - the first half of October. The individual fruits or shields with fruits are torn off with its hands or cut with a pruning shears. The harvested fruits are put in baskets or boxes and delivered to the place of processing.
Storage. At harvesting points, the fruits are stored in a cool place, spreading it in a thin layer.
External signs of raw materials
Spherical juicy, apple-shaped fruits, 10-15 mm in diameter.
On the top there are visible perianth remnants.
The colour is black, purple-black, with a bluish bloom, the surface is shiny, sometimes matte; the pulp is purple-red,
seeds are small and brown.
The taste of the fruit is sour-sweet and astringent.
Properties and application
The pharmacological properties of chokeberry
Chokeberry preparations have:
- C- and P-vitamin action.
It reduces capillary permeability.
Application of chokeberry
The fresh fruit and juice are used:
- with hypo-and avitaminosis P,
- as well as for the treatment of hypertension of I and II degree. After squeezing juice, the fruit pulp is used to prepare tablets used as a medicine.
Indications for application -
- hypacid gastritis,
- hemorrhagic diathesis,
- capillary toxicosis,
- bleeding of different origin,
- radiation injuries
- arterial hypertension,
- hypo-and vitamin C deficiency,
- diarrhea; as part of complex therapy - thyrotoxicosis.
The preparations are contraindicated in patients:
- with increased blood clotting,
- gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer and
- hyperacid state of the stomach.