Common thyme. Thyme herb and oil
Specification & Spread
Common thyme herb — herba thymi vulgaris
Thyme oil – oleum thymi
Common thyme — thymus vulgaris l.
Labiate family – lamiaceae (labiatae)
It is a semishrub with highly branched upright tetrahedral stem up to 45 cm tall.
The leaves are opposite, small, oblong-lanceolate, with the edges curved on the lower side.
The flowers are small (up to 5 mm long), two-lipped, the calyx is green, the corolla is light mauve, pink, less often white.
The inflorescence - racemose thyrsus, consisting of numerous false whorls.
The fruit - cenobium, splitting into four lobes (erema).
It blossoms in June - July, fruits in August.
Spreading. The country - Spain and the south of France. In the Russian Federation it is cultivated in the Krasnodar Territory, as well as in the southern regions of Ukraine and in the Crimea, in Moldova.
The chemical composition of thyme
Common thyme herb contains essential oil, which included:
- up to 40% of thymol,
There are also found:
- oleanolic acids,
Harvesting and storage of raw materials
Harvesting. The harvesting of the raw materials is carried out during the flowering period. The plants are mowed with mowers at a height of 10-15 cm from the soil surface. The second cut is possible in the autumn after the growth of plants.
Drying. Drying and finishing of the raw materials are carried out, as for creeping thyme herb. To obtain the essential oil using freshly harvested herb.
Storage. It is stores the same as creeping thyme herb.
External signs of raw materials
A mixture of leaves, flowers and pieces of stems up to 1 mm thick.
The leaves are small, short-petiolate, entire, oblong-obovate or oblong-lanceolate, with covered edges on the underside; the leaf length is 5-10 mm, the width is 2-5 mm. Under the magnifying glass (× 10), numerous rounded, shiny, reddish-brown dots (pieces of iron with essential oil) are visible on both sides of the sheet.
The flowers are small, single or several together. The calyx is bisexual, five-toothed, the corolla is bisected. The slices of stems are of different lengths, up to 1 mm thick, slightly tetrahedral.
The leaf colour is from above dark green or brownish-green, greyish-green from below; the calyx is light green, sometimes purple at the base of the upper lip;
the corolla is pink, light purple or whitish; the colour of the stems varies from greenish brown to brown with a greyish tint.
The smell is strong, fragrant.
The taste is spicy.
Properties and application
Pharmacotherapeutic group. Expectorant and antiseptic agent.
The pharmacological properties of thyme
The preparations of common thyme have:
- antispasmodic action.
Application of thyme
It is similar to thyme preparations.
- atrial fibrillation,
- liver and kidney diseases,
- reduced thyroid function,
- pregnancy and lactation.