Coriander fruit. Coriander oil
Specification & Spread
Coriander fruits — fructus coriandri
Coriander oil — oleum coriandri
Coriander — Coriandrum sativum L.
Carrot family – Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)
Other names: coriander.
It is an annual plant up to 70 cm tall with fusiform root.
The stem is bare, fine-furred, hollow.
Leaves. The lower (basal) leaves are long-petiolate, tripartite, along the edge of notch-sawed; the stem leaves are short or sessile, pinnate, with linear shares.
The flowers are gathered in an inflorescence complex umbrella without a common wrapper; the umbrellas are with a 3-leaf cover. The flowers are pink or white, pentamerous. The marginal flowers of each umbrella are slightly irregular and larger.
The fruit is a spherical, non-decaying cremocarp. The whole plant before ripening fruit has a sharp, unpleasant odour. When ripe, the fruits get a pleasant aromatic smell.
It blooms in June - July; the fruits ripen in August - September.
Spreading. It comes from southern Europe and Asia Minor. From ancient times it is known in the peoples of the Transcaucasus and Central Asia. As an alien and wild plant is found in the Caucasus, in the Crimea, Central Asia and in the south of the European part of the country.
Habitat. Coriander is cultivated in the central black earth and south-eastern regions of the European part of Russia, in the Ukraine and the North Caucasus. Industrial culture of coriander began in the second half of the nineteenth century. The extensive seed-breeding work carried out by Russian scientists, have improved the yield and productivity of domestic varieties of coriander.
The chemical composition of coriander fruit
The old fruit contains 0.7-1.4% essential oil.
The main component of the oil is linalool (coriandrol) - 60-70%, also contains geraniol (up to 5%), borneol, pinene and other terpenoids.
The fruits also contain:
- phenol carboxylic acids and its derivatives,
- coumarins, flavonoids
The seeds contain 15-20% fatty oil.
Harvesting and storage of raw materials
Harvesting. The plants are mowed with machines when 60-80% of umbrellas are browned.
Drying. It is dried in rolls, then threshed and cleaned of impurities.
Storage. According to the rules of storage of essential oil raw materials.
External signs of raw materials
The fruits are spherical cremocarps with toothed remains of the calyx on the apex, most often not breaking up into semi-fetuses (mericarpias).
The size of the fruit varies from 2 to 4 mm depending on the variety.
The colour of the ripe fruit is yellowish-brown. On each half of the fruit on the convex side there are 5 sinuous, weakly protruding primary ribs, alternating with 6 straight secondary ribs, of which 4 medium ones are strongly protruding.
Essential oil. It is obtained from the fruits of coriander by steam distillation. The oil is a colorless or slightly yellowish liquid with a characteristic aromatic smell and taste due to linalool.
Properties and application
Pharmacotherapeutic group. It improves digestion, choleretic, hemorrhoidal agent. Appetite stimulator.
The pharmacological properties of coriander
- whet your appetite,
- increase secretory and motor activity of the stomach,
- increase bile secretion,
- exhibit a carminative effect.
Coriander essential oil possesses:
- antiseptic action
- enhances the secretion of the glands of the digestive tract.
Application of coriander
Coriander fruits are used independently and as part of fees for
- increase appetite
- with diseases of the stomach,
- liver and biliary tract,
- hemorrhoids as improving digestion,
- laxative means.
Application of essential coriander oil
Essential oil is obtained from fruits, which is part of complex herbal remedies, used to flavor and improve the taste of medicines.
Essential oil is used in perfumery for perfume soaps and for the synthesis of various fragrances - linialyl acetate, citral, etc.
From the linalool there are contained in the essential oil of coriander, citral is obtained by semi-synthetic way, which is used as:
anti-inflammatory and analgesic in eye practice (keratitis, conjunctivitis),
for the treatment of nipple cracks in lactating women. Fatty oil is used in soap making and the production of oleic acid.
Other aspects of coriander application
Coriander fruits are used as a spice in confectionery production, bread baking, and canning.
The young fresh leaves (cilantro) are eaten in the form of salads and as a spicy food seasoning. It is not only improve the taste of food, but also are a source of vitamins C and A.
- diabetes mellitus,
- increased acidity of the stomach,
- coronary heart disease,
- heart attack.