Specification & Spread
Cowslip paigle leaves — folia primulae veris
Cowslip paigle — primula veris l.
Primrose family — primulaceae
Other names: primrose.
It is a perennial herbaceous plant.
The rhizome are short vertical, 6-8 cm long, with numerous succulent cord-shaped roots.
The leaves are in the basal rosette, oblong-obovate, wrinkled, crenate along the edge, softly pubescent, the central vein is light, juicy, turning into a winged petiole. The stem is leafless, juicy, 15-30 cm tall, ends with an inflorescence - a simple one-sided umbrella with drooping bright yellow tubular flowers.
The fruit is an egg-shaped multi-seeded capsule.
It blooms in May - June, the fruits ripen in July - August.
Spreading. It grows in the forest and forest-steppe zone of the European part of the country. In the Caucasus, in the Volga region, in the Urals, in the south of Western Siberia, cowslip paigle is being replaced by a close species - Primula macrocalix - Primula macrocalyx Bunge. It is distinguished by a larger wide-bell-shaped swollen cup, used on a par with cowslip paigle.
Habitat. It grows in deciduous and mixed forests, among shrubs, light forests, forest meadows, glades.
The chemical composition of primose
Cowslip paigle leaves contain:
- up to 5.9% of ascorbic acid,
- triterpene saponins.
The underground organs contain:
- up to 10% of triterpenic saponins,
- as well as flavonoids,
- essential oil.
Harvesting and storage of raw materials
Harvesting. The leaves are harvested by hand at the beginning of flowering, cutting off or cutting them with scissors, knives.
Security measures. You should not pull out plants with roots, collect beautiful flowering primroses on the bouquets.
Drying. It is dried quickly in dryers at a temperature of 100-120 °C to keep ascorbic acid, less often in the shade under a canopy and in attics with frequent mixing of raw materials, laid out in a thin layer. The end of the drying set by fragility of the stalks.
Storage. It is stored in a dry place and packed in bags.
External signs of raw materials
The raw material consists of greyish-green oblong-obovate leaves up to 10 cm long, 5-8 cm wide, with winged, flat and light petioles.
The smell is specific. The taste is sweet-tart.
In the form of an impurity can be found common betony - Betonica officinalis L. from Labiaceae family. Common betony grows with primrose.
The stems are up to 80 cm tall, tetrahedral, opposite-branched.
The leaves are opposite, crenate-serrate on the edge. The inflorescence is spike-shaped thyroid.
The flowers are double-lipped, pink-red.
The fruit is a cenobium, consisting of four hazel lobes (eremov).
Properties and application
The pharmacological properties of primrose
The preparations from the plant when administered by the content of saponins
- increase the secretion of bronchial glands, providing expectorant and anti-inflammatory effect.
The presence of large amounts of vitamin C in primrose leaves makes it possible to use them
- in case of insufficiency of this vitamin.
Application of primrose
Cowslip paigle leaves in the form of tea is used as a vitamin anti-scorching agent.
The preparations are based on rhizomes with primrose roots used as an expectorant for infectious and inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract, accompanied by sputum difficult to separate and paroxysmal cough.
- gastric ulcer,
- individual intolerance,
- the period of pregnancy and lactation.