Field restharrow. Field restharrow roots
Specification & Spread
Field restharrow roots — radices ononidis
Field restharrow — Ononis arvensis L.
Bean family — Fabaceae
Other names: ononis, harrow.
It is a perennial herbaceous plant with several erect branchy stems 40-80 cm tall, with a short, many-headed rhizome, passing into a taproot.
The lower and middle stem leaves are trifoliate, the upper ones are simple, the leaves are elliptical, finely toothed, pubescent. The flowers are gathered in dense spike inflorescences at the ends of the stem and branches.
The corolla is pink, moth type, longer than the calyx.
The fruit is a short, broadly ovoid, slightly swollen, pubescent bean with 2-4 seeds, shorter than the calyx.
The seeds are with a fine tubercle surface, light brown. The whole plant has a peculiar smell.
It blooms in June - August, the fruits ripen from August to frost.
Spreading. It is widely spread throughout the south of the European part of the country, in the Caucasus and Transcaucasia, less common in the Altai Territory and Central Asia, comes to the Yenisei.
Habitat. It grows on arable lands, meadows, along rivers and ditches, among shrubs. It is cultivated in farms in Ukraine and in the Krasnodar Territory.
The chemical composition of field restharrow
The roots of field restharrow contain:
- isoflavone glycosides - ononin (aglycone - formononetin) and onospin (aglycone - onogenin);
- tetracyclic triterpene alcohol ontserin.
In the roots there are also found:
- tannins (0.4%),
- citric acid,
- essential oil (0.02-0.1%),
- resins and
- about 10% of mineral salts, including potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, chlorine, sulfur, phosphorus, silicon.
Harvesting and storage of raw materials
Harvesting. The roots are harvested in autumn - from the end of flowering to the complete withering of the aerial parts. On plantations, they plow out the roots of both annuals and perennials.
Security measures. Under natural conditions, the places of procurement alternate; repeated harvesting is possible in 5 years. The small non-fruiting plants should not be excavated (roots are thin, small).
Drying. Washed, pre-dried roots are cut into pieces and dried in a dryer at a temperature of 45-60 ºС or under a canopy with good ventilation, spreading a layer of 5-7 cm and periodically stirring.
Storage. It is stored in dry, well-ventilated areas, in bales and bags, the raw materials are hygroscopic.
External signs of raw materials
Whole raw materials
Roots, whole or cut into pieces, up to 40 cm long, 0.5-2.5 cm thick.
The roots are cylindrical, slightly flattened, twisted, straight or curved, hard, woody.
The surface of the roots is longitudinally furrowed; cork in places peels off; fibrous fracture.
The colour of the roots from the surface is light brown, yellowish-white on the fracture. The smell is weak, peculiar. The taste is sweetish, bitter, slightly astringent.
Milled raw materials
The pieces of roots of various shapes, passing through a sieve with 7 mm diameter holes.
The colour is light brown or yellowish white.
The smell is weak, peculiar.
The taste is sweetish, bitter, slightly astringent.
Properties and application
The pharmacological properties of field restharrow
Galenic forms, alcoholic extracts from the roots of field restharrow have:
- capillary strengthening and
- anti-inflammatory effect
- possess laxative property.
- increase the tone of the intestinal wall,
- relieve spasm of sphincters.
The purified amount of flavonoids from the roots, ontserin triterpene alcohol and ononin isoflavone glycoside:
- have a pronounced anti-inflammatory property.
The purified amount of flavonoids from the herb is detected in the experiment:
- diuretic and
- choleretic action.
- Application of field restharrow
Field restharrow has long been used as a diuretic, diaphoretic and laxative. Since the 16th century, it has been part of the Pharmacopoeia of the Russian state and almost all European countries.
Field restharrow is usually used when:
- rectal fissures,
- post-dysenteric and proctogenic constipation in the form of decoction and tincture.
Under the influence of preparations:
- increases the tone of the intestinal wall,
- decreases the blood supply of hemorrhoidal veins and swelling of hemorrhoids,
- facilitated the act of defecation.
Anti-inflammatory component and anti-thrombogenic effects are also important.
The tincture of field restharrow is used when:
- varicose phlebothrombosis,
- varicose veins of the lower extremities as a means of reducing the permeability of blood vessels and interfering with intravascular coagulation of blood.
Idiosyncrasy, pregnancy and lactation.