Fig tree. Fig tree leaves
Specification & Spread
Fig tree leaves — folia fici caricae
Fig tree — ficus carica l.
Mulberry family — моrасеае
It is a deciduous tree up to 10 m tall with light gray smooth bark.
The leaves are alternate, 3-5-palmar-footed or palmate-divided, less often whole, rounded-ovate, up to 15 cm long and 12 cm wide, dark green above, hard rough, greyish-green below, fluffy, on long thick petioles. The leaves have a peculiar smell. The flowers are of three types: male, female short-column, or gall, and female long stems, giving fruit. The long-stemmed flowers are formed in special inflorescences - pear-shaped syconium, which then produce large, juicy stems, called fig tree, grapes, or figs. The stemfruits are on short legs, single, pear-shaped or flattened-spherical in shape, 5-8 cm long and 5 cm in diameter, from light yellow to violet-brown. The fruits are small nuts immersed in the fabric of overgrown seedlings. All vegetative parts of the plant contain acrid milky juice.
It blossoms in April - May. The fruits ripen in the second half of July.
The fig tree is one of the most ancient cultivated plants. In Asia, its culture is known for 5000 years, in Europe - 2000 years. On the territory of the CIS is cultivated in the Caucasus and Central Asia. The main plantations of fig tree are located in Uzbekistan in the Fergana valley. In the wild form, the fig tree is found in the Transcaucasus, in some regions of Central Asia (Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan) at an altitude of 600 to 1000 m above sea level on the mountain slopes, in river gorges.
The chemical composition of fig tree leaves
Fig leaves contain:
- furocoumarins (psoralen, bergapten),
- steroid compounds (sitosterol, stigmasterol, ficusogenin),
- organic acids,
- essential oil.
The fruits contain:
- pectic substances (5-6%);
- sugar (up to 75%);
- tannins (2%);
- organic acids: citric, oxalic, succinic, malic, fumaric, quinic;
- triterpene saponins;
- vitamins C, B1, B2, A, E, PP;
- trace elements.
In addition,it contains the enzyme ficin, which has fibrinolytic properties.
Harvesting and storage of raw materials
Harvesting. Fig tree leaves are harvested during September - October, when leaf blades reach a length of 16-25 cm and a width of 22.5 cm with stem length up to 3-5 cm. Harvesting is carried out after harvesting the fruit. In order to avoid burns of the skin of the hands, face and eyes, the leaves are harvested in gloves and goggles. The leaves that are removed from the bushes in July during thinning of thickets are also subject to harvesting. The leaves are carefully cut with knives, because the branches of figs are very fragile and easily break off even with a weak mechanical effect.
Drying. The fresh cut leaves are laid out in a thin layer (up to 5 cm thick) on a tarp or on open asphalt pads. Every day 3-4 times the raw material is tedded with a pitchfork, avoiding sticking into lumps. During the harvesting and drying of leaves is not allowed to get moisture on it.
Storage. It is stored in a dry and well-ventilated area on shelves.
Properties and application
Pharmacotherapeutic group. Photosensitizing agent.
The pharmacological properties of fig tree leaves
Application of fruits and leaves of fig tree
It is used as a photosensitizing agent for vitiligo (leucoderma), alopecia areata (baldness), ulcers and furuncles.
Fig tree has a softening and easy laxative effect.
It is not recommended for oxalate kidney stones.
It is contraindicated in patients with diabetes.
It is recommended not to consume a large amount of fruit and preparations from it for pancreatitis and gout.
Limit admission for exacerbations of diseases of the stomach and intestinal tract.