Hare’s-ear. Hare’s-ear herb
Specification & Spread
Hare’s-ear herb – herba bupleuri multinervis
Hare’s-ear — bupleurum multinerve dc.
Carrot family – apiaceae (umbelliferae)
It is a herbaceous perennial plant with 2-3 erect, simple or branched stems in the upper part up to 70-100 cm tall.
The leaves are narrow, lanceolate or linear; the lower - on petioles, the upper - sessile, amplexicaul. The flowers are in a complex umbrella, yellow; the cover and covers are large, broadly lanceolate.
The fruit is a dark brown cremocarp consisting of two 3-4 mm long mericarpies.
It blossoms in June - July, fruits in August.
Spreading. Hare’s-ear has a disjunctive area. This is mainly the Mongolian-Siberian species, found in Russia outside Siberia only in the Middle and Southern Urals and on the Central Russian Upland (in the Kursk, Belgorod and Voronezh Regions). In Siberia, it has a torn area consisting of a number of plots. It is widely spread in Altai, Sayan, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Khakassia, Tuva and Transbaikalia.
Habitat. It grows in steppe meadows, open, often stony slopes, along the edges of deciduous and pine forests, in forb and alpine steppes, on steppe and alpine meadows, as well as in steppe mountain tundra. The industrial arrays of hare’s-ear is identified in Altai, in Tuva and Khakassia. The possibility of industrial culture of this species in the forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia has been established. In culture, productivity increases, the yield of raw materials increases and the content of flavonoids increases.
The chemical composition of hare’a-ear
In the aerial parts there are contained:
- flavonoids (6-8%),
- quercetin derivatives and
- isorhamnetin (rutin, isorhamnetin-3-rutinoside, isoquercitrin).
It is also found:
- essential oils,
- ascorbic acid.
The content of flavonoids in plants from Altai is 2-5 times higher than that collected in the European part.
Harvesting and storage of raw materials
Harvesting. The herb should be harvested during the flowering period, which lasts about a month, starting from the second half of June. When harvesting, cut off the aerial part without damaging the bases of the stems and the root system. Subject to the rules of harvesting and protection of thickets, the raw materials can be harvested on the same sites annually for 2-3 years.
Drying. The harvested herb is laid out in a thin layer and dried in well-ventilated rooms, in attics, under sheds or in specially adapted dryers at a temperature of 50-70 ºС.
Storage. It is stored in warehouses, the raw materials are stored in packaged form on racks or scaffold poles, in dry, well-ventilated areas.
External signs of raw materials
The raw material consists of a mixture of leafy stems with buds, flowers and fruits, partially crumbling and crushed.
The bottom and lower stem leaves with 5-7 parallel veins, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, narrowed into petiole from 1 to 6 cm long. The middle and upper leaves are sessile, with a heart-shaped stem.
The colour of the stems and leaves is green or dirty green. The umbrellas are large with 5-15 rays and covers. There are multiflorous umbrellas, also with covers; the flowers are yellow.
The fruit is an oval, laterally compressed visloplodar with winged ribs.
The smell is peculiar; there is no taste.
Properties and application
An infusion of hare’s-ear is used as
- choleretic agent.
It is also used when
- capillary toxicosis,
- hemorrhagic diathesis,
- bleeding of the nose, gums and other organs,
- edema of vascular origin.
Be careful when:
- gallstone disease,
- gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer,
- treatment of infectious diseases,
Contraindications to the application of preparations from hare’s-ear are eye diseases, itchy and pustular dermatosis.