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Specification & Spread

Hedysarum herb — herba hedysari
Alpine hedysarum — hedysarum alpinum l.
Yellowing hedysarum — hedysarum flavescens regel et schmalh.
Bean family – fabaceae.

Alpine hedysarum is a perennial herbaceous plant 40–120 cm tall, with leafy, erect and bare stems.
The leaves with stipules are single-pinnately-compound, with 5–9 pairs of short-petiol oblong-ovate or oblong-elliptic whole-edged leaflets.
The leaflets are bare or are pubescent below, mainly along the main vein, reaching a length of 3 cm.
The stipules are membranous and large.
The flowers by 20-30 (up to 60) are gathered in thick long brush, exceeding the length of the leaves. The flowers are dark pink or purple, rarely white, on short pedicels with linear bracts.
The calyx is bell-shaped,  the corolla is moth-type.
The fruit is a 1–4-membered bean, the segments are rounded or rounded-elliptical, bare or covered with adherent hairs, non-gridded, without margin.

It blooms in July - August, the fruits ripen in late August.
Yellowing hedysarum
The yellowing hedysarum is also high (up to 150 cm) perennial herbaceous plant.
The leaves are with 3-5 pairs of larger leaves up to 4 cm long and more.
The inflorescences are spurious one-sided brush of 15-35 large flowers with a yellow corolla.
The fruit is a bean with 2-4 flat oblong-elliptical, thin-mesh segments, with a solid wing along the edge.

Spreading. Alpine hedysarum is an Eurasian plant, in Russia it grows in the forest and forest-steppe zones of Siberia and the Far East, entering the European part in the Urals, in the Ural region, and also in the Arkhangelsk and in the south of the Murmansk regions. Thickets of hedysarum are confined to well-drained sites of floodplains of rivers and streams.
Habitat. It prefers moist and humus-rich meadow soils. It grows in wet meadow communities, in low birch thicket and willow. The main commercial arrays of the plant were found in the Trans-Baikal Territory.

The yellowing hedysarum is endemic to Central Asia, widely spread in the mountain forest belt of the Western Pamir-Alay and Western Tien Shan. It forms thickets on scree and among mesophilic shrubs.

Composition

The chemical composition of hedysarum

In the herb of both species of hedysarum there is the presence of:

  • xanthones (mangiferin, isomangiferin, glucomangiferin and glucoisomangiferin);
  • flavonoids (hyperoside, polysichiozid, avikularin, etc.);
  • monosaccharides (galactose, glucose, arabinose, xylose, etc.);
  • pectin substances;
  • polysaccharides and ascorbic acid. 

In the herb of Alpine hedysarum, the content of such macro- and microelements as K, Ca, Mn, Mo, Cu, Se is established.

Harvesting and storage of raw materials

Harvesting. The preparation is carried out in July - August, cutting leafy stems at a height of 10-20 cm from the soil surface with sickles.

Drying. The harvested above-ground part of the plant is dried in the shade with periodic turning. Then the herb is threshed and coarse thick stems are removed with the help of a rake. Before packaging, remove possible impurities that have fallen into the raw material during harvesting or drying.

Security measures. On the same arrays to ensure the restoration of thickets of hedysarum is recommended to keep the the raw material after 1 year. According to the complexity of harvesting the herb of hedysarum in nature and a great need for this raw material, there were developed agrotechnologies for the cultivation of Alpine hedysarum.

Storage. It is stored in warehouses, raw materials are stored on scaffold poles in a dry and dark, clean room.

External signs of raw materials

Whole raw materials

The raw material is a mixture of whole or partially crushed leaves, inflorescences, pieces of stems, occasionally green fruits.
There are complex odd pinnate leaves, split into separate leaves and petioles, rarely whole, with 5–9 pairs (Alpine hedysarum) or with 3-5 pairs (yellowing hedysarum) of the leaves. 
Alpine hedysarum leaves are oblong-ovate or oblong-elliptical.
The purple flowers of 20-30 (up to 60) are gathered in brushes. The flowers are 10-17 mm long, the calyx is short and bell-shaped.
The corolla is of the papilionaceous type, the vane is equal in length to the wings or shorter; the carina is longer than the flag and wings.
The beans are with 1-4 segments; the segments are elliptic, non-stigmatized, bare or adpressed hairy, without margin. The small leaves of yellowing hedysarum of larger size are rounded or obtuse at the apex with a tip, the inflorescences are sparse, with larger light yellow flowers;
The beans are with 2-4 flat thin-mesh segments, along the edge with a solid wing.
The smell is weak, the taste is slightly astringent.

Milled raw materials

The pieces of leaves, stems, inflorescences, flowers, fruits of various shapes, passing through a sieve with holes of 3 mm diameter.

Properties and application

The pharmacological properties of hedysarum

Xanthone glycoside mangiferin

  • inhibits the reproduction of herpes simplex virus in the early stages of its development.

It promotes the production of gamma interferon in blood cells, has a moderate bacteriostatic effect against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, protozoa and mycobacteria tuberculosis.

Application of hedysarum

It is applied:

  • for the prevention and treatment of respiratory diseases in the spring and autumn periods,
  • with long-term chronic diseases,
  • weakened sick and
  • elderly people.

Contraindications

With individual intolerance, pregnancy and lactation. It is prohibited for children under 14 years of age, as well as with increased nervous excitability, hypertension of III and IV degrees, after myocardial infarction.

Hedysarum. Alpine hedysarum herb


Specification & Spread

Hedysarum herb — herba hedysari
Alpine hedysarum — hedysarum alpinum l.
Yellowing hedysarum — hedysarum flavescens regel et schmalh.
Bean family – fabaceae.

Alpine hedysarum is a perennial herbaceous plant 40–120 cm tall, with leafy, erect and bare stems.
The leaves with stipules are single-pinnately-compound, with 5–9 pairs of short-petiol oblong-ovate or oblong-elliptic whole-edged leaflets.
The leaflets are bare or are pubescent below, mainly along the main vein, reaching a length of 3 cm.
The stipules are membranous and large.
The flowers by 20-30 (up to 60) are gathered in thick long brush, exceeding the length of the leaves. The flowers are dark pink or purple, rarely white, on short pedicels with linear bracts.
The calyx is bell-shaped,  the corolla is moth-type.
The fruit is a 1–4-membered bean, the segments are rounded or rounded-elliptical, bare or covered with adherent hairs, non-gridded, without margin.

It blooms in July - August, the fruits ripen in late August.
Yellowing hedysarum
The yellowing hedysarum is also high (up to 150 cm) perennial herbaceous plant.
The leaves are with 3-5 pairs of larger leaves up to 4 cm long and more.
The inflorescences are spurious one-sided brush of 15-35 large flowers with a yellow corolla.
The fruit is a bean with 2-4 flat oblong-elliptical, thin-mesh segments, with a solid wing along the edge.

Spreading. Alpine hedysarum is an Eurasian plant, in Russia it grows in the forest and forest-steppe zones of Siberia and the Far East, entering the European part in the Urals, in the Ural region, and also in the Arkhangelsk and in the south of the Murmansk regions. Thickets of hedysarum are confined to well-drained sites of floodplains of rivers and streams.
Habitat. It prefers moist and humus-rich meadow soils. It grows in wet meadow communities, in low birch thicket and willow. The main commercial arrays of the plant were found in the Trans-Baikal Territory.

The yellowing hedysarum is endemic to Central Asia, widely spread in the mountain forest belt of the Western Pamir-Alay and Western Tien Shan. It forms thickets on scree and among mesophilic shrubs.

Composition

The chemical composition of hedysarum

In the herb of both species of hedysarum there is the presence of:

  • xanthones (mangiferin, isomangiferin, glucomangiferin and glucoisomangiferin);
  • flavonoids (hyperoside, polysichiozid, avikularin, etc.);
  • monosaccharides (galactose, glucose, arabinose, xylose, etc.);
  • pectin substances;
  • polysaccharides and ascorbic acid. 

In the herb of Alpine hedysarum, the content of such macro- and microelements as K, Ca, Mn, Mo, Cu, Se is established.

Harvesting and storage of raw materials

Harvesting. The preparation is carried out in July - August, cutting leafy stems at a height of 10-20 cm from the soil surface with sickles.

Drying. The harvested above-ground part of the plant is dried in the shade with periodic turning. Then the herb is threshed and coarse thick stems are removed with the help of a rake. Before packaging, remove possible impurities that have fallen into the raw material during harvesting or drying.

Security measures. On the same arrays to ensure the restoration of thickets of hedysarum is recommended to keep the the raw material after 1 year. According to the complexity of harvesting the herb of hedysarum in nature and a great need for this raw material, there were developed agrotechnologies for the cultivation of Alpine hedysarum.

Storage. It is stored in warehouses, raw materials are stored on scaffold poles in a dry and dark, clean room.

External signs of raw materials

Whole raw materials

The raw material is a mixture of whole or partially crushed leaves, inflorescences, pieces of stems, occasionally green fruits.
There are complex odd pinnate leaves, split into separate leaves and petioles, rarely whole, with 5–9 pairs (Alpine hedysarum) or with 3-5 pairs (yellowing hedysarum) of the leaves. 
Alpine hedysarum leaves are oblong-ovate or oblong-elliptical.
The purple flowers of 20-30 (up to 60) are gathered in brushes. The flowers are 10-17 mm long, the calyx is short and bell-shaped.
The corolla is of the papilionaceous type, the vane is equal in length to the wings or shorter; the carina is longer than the flag and wings.
The beans are with 1-4 segments; the segments are elliptic, non-stigmatized, bare or adpressed hairy, without margin. The small leaves of yellowing hedysarum of larger size are rounded or obtuse at the apex with a tip, the inflorescences are sparse, with larger light yellow flowers;
The beans are with 2-4 flat thin-mesh segments, along the edge with a solid wing.
The smell is weak, the taste is slightly astringent.

Milled raw materials

The pieces of leaves, stems, inflorescences, flowers, fruits of various shapes, passing through a sieve with holes of 3 mm diameter.

Properties and application

The pharmacological properties of hedysarum

Xanthone glycoside mangiferin

  • inhibits the reproduction of herpes simplex virus in the early stages of its development.

It promotes the production of gamma interferon in blood cells, has a moderate bacteriostatic effect against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, protozoa and mycobacteria tuberculosis.

Application of hedysarum

It is applied:

  • for the prevention and treatment of respiratory diseases in the spring and autumn periods,
  • with long-term chronic diseases,
  • weakened sick and
  • elderly people.

Contraindications

With individual intolerance, pregnancy and lactation. It is prohibited for children under 14 years of age, as well as with increased nervous excitability, hypertension of III and IV degrees, after myocardial infarction.


 
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