Immortelle. Immortelle flowers
Specification & Spread
Immortelle flowers — flores helichrysi arenarii
Immortelle — helichrysum arenarium (l.) Moench
Composite family – asteraceae (compositae)
Other names: everlasting flower, straw flower, helichrysum.
It is a low perennial herbaceous plant 15–30 cm tall with a short rhizome and thin long roots.
The basal leaves are oblong-obovate with a rounded tip and short petiole, gathered in the outlet. From the rhizome depart one or more ascending, branched only in the inflorescence of the stems. The stem leaves are alternate, sessile, oblong or linear.
The whole plant is whitish-felt.
The numerous small baskets are gathered in dense corymbose inflorescences.
The leaflets are dry, membranous and lemon yellow.
The flowers are tubular and golden orange.
The fruit is an achene with tuft.
It blooms from late June to September.
Spreading. In the steppe, forest-steppe and in the south of the forest zones of the European part of the CIS, in the steppe regions of Kazakhstan and Western Siberia.
Habitat. It grows mainly on dry sandy, less often stony soils, along forest edges, along forest roads, on open sunny glades, in young, mainly pine, plantings. In old pine forests, although sparse, does not bloom. On moist soil does not grow. It is cultivated in Ukraine.
The chemical composition of immortelle
The inflorescences contain:
- flavonoids (6.5%): flavanone naringenin and its 5-glycosides - salipurposide and its stereoisomer helihrizin, chalconic glycoside - isosalipurpozide, flavone apigenin and its 7-glycoside, flavonol kaempferol and its 3-glycosides, etc.;
- phthalic anhydride derivatives (phthalides);
- coumarin scopoletin;
- essential oil (0.04%);
The raw materials accumulate selenium.
Harvesting and storage of raw materials
Harvesting. It is advisable to harvest inflorescences at the beginning of flowering, before the opening of the side baskets. At a later harvest, as a result of the opening of the baskets, the flowers are strongly shed when drying, and the raw material contains a large number of bare axes of the inflorescences with covers. The inflorescences together with peduncles are up to 1 cm in length are cut with scissors or a knife.
Security measures. On the same array, the harvesting of inflorescences can be carried out up to 3-4 times as the plants bloom. The repeated harvesting - in 5-7 days. You can not tear the inflorescences with stems, pull out plants with roots. The repeated harvesting on specific arrays should be carried out in 1-2 years, at the same time 1-2 flowering plants should be left for 1 m2 to ensure seed regeneration. The immortelle sand is widely cultivated in specialized farms. Cleaning inflorescences mechanized.
Drying. In cool rooms with good ventilation, the raw materials are laid out in a layer of 2-3 cm on paper or fabric; the tampering is not allowed. It is not recommended to dry the raw materials in warm rooms and in attics under an iron roof, as this leads to a large amount of scree. In the dryer can be dried at a temperature not higher than 40 ºС.
Storage. In a dark, well-ventilated area. In warehouses - in bags, in pharmacies - in boxes or in cans.
External signs of raw materials
Whole raw materials
The baskets are spherical, single or assembled several together on short woolly felted peduncles up to 1 cm long and about 7 mm in diameter.
The baskets consist of numerous flowers located on a bare inflorescence bed, surrounded by numerous loosely adhered wrapper leaves.
All flowers are tubular, pentadent, bisexual, with a tuft. The leaflets are concave, dry, membranous, shiny, the outer - ovoid, the medium - spatulate, elongated, the inner - narrow, linear.
The colour of the cover is lemon yellow, the flowers are lemon yellow or orange.
The smell is weak, fragrant. The taste is bitter.
Milled raw materials
The baskets are spherical, single, small, sometimes 2-3 each together, separate beds of inflorescences and their pieces with remnants of leaf covers and tubular flowers, pieces of stems and peduncles passing through a sieve with holes of 7 mm in diameter.
Properties and application
The pharmacological properties of immortelle
Infusion of Immortelle flowers:
- enhances the secretion of bile, gastric and pancreatic juices,
- increases the tone of the gallbladder and promotes the flow of bile,
- exerting an antispasmodic effect on the smooth muscles of the sphincters of the gallbladder and biliary tract;
- changes the viscosity and chemical composition of bile in the direction of increasing cholera cholesterol coefficient.
The action of immortelle is associated with flavones and phenolic acids, which activate the formation of bile and increase the bilirubin content in bile.
- stimulate the secretion of gastric digestive enzymes,
- while slowing down the evacuation function of the stomach and intestines,
- promote the best digestion of food;
- stimulate exocrine activity of the pancreas;
- act antispastic on smooth muscles of the intestinal wall,
- dilates the blood vessels of the intestines;
- have hypocholesterolemic properties, contributing to the secretion of cholesterol with bile;
- have antibacterial activity, which is associated with the presence of resin acids;
- increase the antiparasitic activity of metronidazole and aminoquinol in the treatment of giardiasis (complex use).
Immortelle preparations are used as a choleretic agent:
- in diseases of the biliary system (cholecystitis, cholangitis, cholelithiasis, biliary dyskinesia);
- in case of liver diseases after acute hepatitis of various etiology.
When sluggish digestion, poor appetite, insufficient excretion of digestive enzymes, as a lipid-lowering agent:
- with atherosclerosis,
- disorders of fat metabolism,
- diabetes mellitus,
- ischemic heart disease immortelle preparations are used as a lipid-lowering agent that helps remove cholesterol and its precursors from the body with bile.
When giardiasis is used in complex therapy with other anti-antibiotic preparations and oxygen therapy:
- anti-inflammatory and
- antibacterial effect on antibiotic-resistant gram-positive bacteria (including staphylococci and streptococci);
- stimulates regenerative processes in tissues.
- individual intolerance,
- contraindicated in obstructive jaundice,
- pregnancy and lactation.