Sophora. Japanese sophora buds and fruits
Specification & Spread
Japanese sophora buds — alabastra sophorae japonicae
Japanese sophora fruits — fructus sophorae japonicae
Japanese sophora — sophora japonica l. ( = styphnolobium japonicum (l.) Schott.)
Bean family – fabaceae
It is a deciduous tree, reaching 7-25 m tall, with a wide crown.
The bark of the old stocks is dark grey, with deep cracks, young branches and shoots are greenish-grey, shortly pubescent.
The leaves are unpaired, pinnately-compound, 11-25 cm long. The leaflets are oblong-ovate or lanceolate, entire.
The flowers are 1-1.5 cm long, fragrant, in large loose end panicles, reaching a length of 20-30 cm.
The corolla is moth type, yellowish-white. The fruit is a fleshy, bare, unopened bob up to 10 cm long, with deep constrictions between seeds filled with yellowish-green sticky juice, not falling for the winter (Fig. 8.4). The unripe beans are green, the fully ripe - reddish. Each bean contains 2-6 oval, smooth, dark brown seeds, resembling bean seeds, but smaller. The seeds usually do not ripen. The weeping cultural form of sophora is known, on which it is convenient to gather the buds and fruits. The Japanese sophoras are well distinguished from other ornamental trees of the legume sophora family by non-blown beans and the absence of prickles.
It blooms in late summer, in July - August; fruits ripen in September - October and keep on the tree all winter.
The country is China and Japan, widely cultivated in the south of the European part of the CIS, in the Crimea, in the Caucasus and in Central Asia as an ornamental plant for landscaping settlements. The areas of the raw materials harvesting on an industrial scale can be the southern regions of Ukraine, the Rostov Region, the Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories. However, the need for cheap raw materials is satisfied by importing from the natural areas of sophora.
The chemical composition of sophora
The main active ingredients of buds and fruits are:
- flavonoids, among which is dominated by rutin. It is more contained in buds (up to 20%).
From other compounds there are selected:
- kaempferol-3-saporioside and
Harvesting and storage of raw materials
Harvesting. The buds are harvested in dry weather at the end of June - July, when large buds are formed, some of which (usually at the base of the inflorescences) are already starting to bloom. The inflorescences are cut with a pruner or carefully broken off at the base, using ladders for this purpose. The fruits are harvested in an immature state when they reach a length of 9-10 cm and a thickness of 10-12 mm. The pericarp at the time of harvesting raw materials should be light green, fleshy and juicy, the seeds - large, hardened, beginning to darken. After harvesting, blackened and immature fruits, foreign parts of the plant are selected.
Drying. The collected buds with inflorescences are dried in attics with good ventilation or in dryers at a temperature of 40-45 ° C. During the drying, the raw materials are mixed, while there is a massive shedding of buds. The dried raw materials are cleaned from twigs of inflorescences and impurities and packed in bags. The fruits are dried in well-ventilated rooms or in dryers at temperatures up to 25-30 ° C.
Storage. It is stored in warehouses, buds and fruits are stored on racks in a dry, well-ventilated area, and the fruits are stored in a special pantry for fruits and seeds.
External signs of raw materials
The raw material consists of buds of oblong-ovoid shape, from 3 to 7 mm long and from 1.5 to 3 mm wide.
The calyx is bell-shaped with 5 short blunt or slightly acuminate teeth, yellowish-green, pubescent (magnifier!).
A corolla is of pale yellow colour, about the size of a cup or slightly protruding above it.
The smell is weak.
The beans are non-expanding, flattened-cylindrical, beaded, up to 10 cm long and 0.5-1 cm wide, greenish-brown with a well-marked yellowish stitch.
The seeds are dark brown or almost black, most of them are underdeveloped.
The smell is absent. The taste is bitter.
Properties and application
The pharmacological action of sophora
Rutin (rutoside) acts primarily on the capillaries and veins.
It reduces the filtration rate of water in the capillaries and the vascular permeability of the microvasculature in relation to proteins.
It inhibits aggregation and increases the degree of deformability of red blood cells.
It has anti-inflammatory effect.
In patients with chronic venous insufficiency, lymphostasis reduces swelling of the lower extremities and the resulting complaints (fatigue, pain, cramps).
In the form of a gel is effective
- with soft tissue injuries (sprains, bruises).
Application of sophora
The buds ofJapanese sophora are used to: obtain
- routine and
The indications for the application of routine:
- venous insufficiency of the lower extremities, accompanied by edema, pain;
- dermatitis (on the background of varicose veins);
- varicose ulcers of the leg;
- diabetic retinopathy (as part of complex therapy);
- prevention of reactions of the skin and mucous membranes to radiation therapy.
The gel is used for injuries (stretching, contusion) of soft tissues, accompanied by pain and swelling.
The preparations are used:
- for the prevention and treatment of hypo-and avitaminosis P and
- in diseases involving impaired vascular permeability,
- hemorrhagic diathesis,
From the fruit, a tincture is obtained, which has a wound-healing effect and is used in the form of lotions and irrigations with:
- purulent wounds,
- trophic ulcers and
It is contradicted with hypersensitivity to the plant, as well as in diseases of the kidneys and liver, during pregnancy and lactation. However, externally, for the treatment of purulent inflammatory skin processes, diseases of the kidneys and liver are not contraindicated for Japanese sophora.