Specification & Spread
Jimson-weed leaves — folia stramonii
Jimson-weed — datura stramonium
Solanaceous family — solanaceae
Other names: Jamestown lily, devil's-apple, stramonium, thorn apple, mad-apple, apple of Peru, fireweed.
It is an annual herbaceous plant up to 100 cm in height with an unpleasant odor.
The stem is erect juicy, naked, hollow, at the top is forcipate and branched.
The leaves are alternate, pairwise contiguous, petiolate, ovate, unevenly large-toothed, almost laciniate, 7–20 cm long, 5–15 (20) cm wide.
The flowers are solitary in the crotches of the stem and its branches, regular, pentamerous, with double perianth. The calyx is tubular,
pentahedral, 4-6 cm long. The corolla is white or bluish, tubular-funnel, 6-12 cm long.
The fruit is a multi-seeded erect capsule of an ovoid form, covered with solid hard spines, with the rest of the calyx at the base and opening with four leaves.
The seeds are flattened, rounded-reniform and dull black.
It blossoms in June -September and fruits from July.
Spreading. It is spread quite widely. it is found mainly in the middle and southern strip of the European part of the country, in Ukraine, in Belarus, Moldova, Central Asia and in the Caucasus. It is cultivated in specialized farms in Ukraine and Krasnodar Territory (Russia).
Habitat. It is a ruderal plant. It grows in wastelands, gardens, along roads, near housing and in cities. It usually grows in groups, less often absently.
Jimson-weed leaves contain the amount of tropane alkaloids (0,23-0,27%), consisting mainly of:
- hyoscyamine and
In addition, the leaves contain:
- phenolic acids,
Harvesting and storage of raw materials
Harvesting. Jimson-weed leaves are harvested, starting from the flowering phase until the end of fruiting, always in dry and clear weather. The leaves are harvested by hand without leafstalks. While harvesting the raw materials, you must take precautions: do not touch your eyes, lips and nose. Wash hands thoroughly after handling.
Drying. The harvested leaves are dried without delay, spreading them in a thin layer (2-3 cm), in attics under an iron roof, in a room with good ventilation or in the open air in the shade, with frequent stirring. The best quality of the raw material is obtained by drying in dryers at a temperature not higher than 40 °C. Drying is considered complete when the midrib becomes brittle. The yield of dry raw material is 12-14%.
External signs of raw materials
Whole raw materials.
Whole or partially broken, ovoid leaves, bare, pointed at the apex, at the base it is mostly wedge-shaped, at the edge unevenly large sinuate-dentate or deeply sinuate-dentate. The leafstalks are cylindrical. The venation is circulatory. Slight pubescence is noticed along the veins from the underside. The veins, main and lateral of the first order, strongly projecting from the lower side are convex, bare and yellowish-white.
The leaf length is up to 20 cm, the width is up to 20 cm.
The colour of the leaves from the top side is dark green, from the bottom is lighter.
The smell is weak, specific and aggravated by moisture.
The taste is not determined(!).
Milled raw materials.
The pieces of leaves of various shapes, passing through a sieve with openings is with a diameter of 7 mm.
The colour is green. The smell is weak, specific and aggravated by moisture.
The taste is not determined(!).
Properties and application
The pharmacological properties of Jimson-weed
M-anticholinergic properties due to the presence of tropane alkaloids are characteristic of Jimson-weed.
- has pronounced bronchodilatory effect,
- tones and energizes the respiratory center,
- lowers the tone of smooth muscle organs,
- reduces the secretion of sweat, salivary and gastric glands and the secretion of the pancreas,
- reduces the influence of the vagus nerve on the heart.
Application of Jimson-weed
The leaves of Jimson-weed is a part of the anti-asthmatic collection.
The oil extract from the leaves is used as an external irritant, a pain reliever for grinding with: