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Specification & Spread

Linden flowers — flores tiliae
Tillet — tilia cordata mill.
Big-leaf linden — tilia platyphyllos scop.
Linden family— tiliaceae
Other names: lime tree, teil, snake oil.


Both species are large deciduous trees up to 30 m high with a spreading head.
The young branches are covered with smooth and old - deeply cracked bark of grey-black colour.
The leaves are long-petiolate, rounded-heart-shaped, slightly unequal, with a long sharpened tip, with a serrate edge, dark green, glabrous above, bottom with tufts of hairs in branching veins.
The flowers are fragrant, pentamerous, with light yellow bracts, gathered in cymoid umbellate inflorescences.
The fruit is a globular walnut (pyrenarium).

It blooms in June - July, the fruits ripen in August - September.
Big-leaf linden tree blooms 1-2 weeks earlier. The distinctive features of both types are shown in the table.

Spreading. Tillet occupies a large area. It grows in the zone of deciduous forests of the European part of the country, comes to the Urals. Tillet takes large areas in Bashkiria, quite a lot of it in the Middle Volga region. To the north it moves a little further than the oak, as it is less demanding on the soil. In the north it occurs in the underbrush. Big-leaf linden linden naturally grows in the western regions of Ukraine. Both species of linden are widely cultivated in gardens and parks. In the Far East, in Moldova, Transcarpathia, other types of linden grow.

Habitat. It grows on drained and fertile soils.

Composition

The chemical composition of linden

Linden flowers contain:

  • essential oil (about 0.05%), which includes fesnezol sesquiterpene alcohol (the main component of the essential oil, from the presence of which the smell of fresh raw materials depends);
  • polysaccharides (7-10%), including mucus.

In addition, triterpene saponins, flavonoids in the amount of 4-5% (hesperidin, quercetin, kaempferol) were isolated from flowers, ascorbic acid and carotenoids.

Linden leaves contain:

  • a lot of protein,
  • there is ascorbic acid (131 mg%) and carotenoids.

In the fruit - about 60% fatty oil.

Harvesting and storage of raw materials

Harvesting. The harvesting is made only in dry weather, during flowering, when most of the flowers have blossomed, and the rest are still in buds. The whole inflorescences are harvested together with the bract. The raw materials are harvested at a later date, when some of the flowers have already blossomed, when drying turns brown, crumbles strongly and becomes non-standard. Usually, the harvesting of the raw materials lasts about 10 days. In addition to the official species of linden, the harvesting of inflorescences of other species is practically allowed: Tilia caucasica Rupr. - in the Caucasus, Tilia argentea Desf. - in the south-western regions of the European part of the country, Tilia sibirica Fisch. - in Western Siberia, Tilia amurensis Kom. - in the Far East.

Security measures. It is forbidden to cut and break branches, as well as to harvest inflorescences from trees growing near apiaries.


Drying. Linden flowers are dried in ventilated areas or in attics in the shade. In the sun, the raw materials are discolored. In view of the fragility of the axes of the inflorescences, it is better not to agitate it, but for drying it should be laid out in a thin layer (3-5 cm). When drying, the pleasant smell of flowers almost disappears. Drying is stopped when the flower stalks become brittle. It can be dried in dryers at a temperature not higher than 40-45 °C.

Storage. It is stored in a dark and dry room. In pharmacies it is stored in closed boxes, in warehouses it is stored in piles and bales. The raw materials are easily crushed, so care should be taken when storing.

External signs of raw materials

Whole raw materials

The umbellate inflorescences consist of 5-15 (tillet) or 2-9 (big-leaf linden) flowers on elongated pedicels, sitting on a common peduncle that grow together in the lower part with the main vein of the bracts.
The flowers are correct, 1-1.5 cm in diameter.
The calyx is of 5 oblong-ovate sepals, densely pubescent along the edge and from the inside.
The corolla is of 5 loose egg-shaped petals, longer than the calyx.
The stamens are numerous, fused in 5 beams.
The pistil is one with the upper globular ovary densely covered with fluffy hairs. There are flower buds and unripe fruits.
The bracts are membranous, with a dense network of veins, up to 6 cm long and up to 1.5 cm wide, oblong-elliptical in shape with a dull tip, in the lower half accreted along the main vein with a peduncle.

The colour of the petals is whitish yellow, the sepals are greenish or yellowish grey, and the bracts are light yellow or greenish yellow.
The smell is weak and fragrant.
The taste is sweet and slightly astringent, with a flavour of mucus.


Milled raw materials

A mixture of flowers, pedicels and pieces of bracts of various shapes are ranging in size from 0.5 to 20 mm.
The colour of the petals is whitish yellow, the sepals are greenish or yellowish grey, and the bracts are light yellow or greenish yellow.
The smell is weak and fragrant.
The taste is sweet and slightly astringent, with a flavour of mucus.

Properties and application

Pharmacotherapeutic group. Sudorific and anti-inflammatory agent.

The pharmacological properties of linden

Linden flower preparations have:

  • anti-inflammatory effects due to flavonoids and polysaccharides delay mainly exudative phase of inflammation, contribute to an earlier separation of the inflammatory process from the surrounding tissue.
  • Accelerate the processes of regeneration and the formation of granulation tissue, which is associated with the stimulating effect of flavonoids on collagen tissues;
  • possess antiseptic properties;
  • have antipyretic and diaphoretic effects,
  • promotes the excretion of sodium chloride from the body;
  • give antispasmodic effect;
  • lower blood pressure;
  • have a sedative effect;
  • increase diuresis;
  • increase the secretion of gastric juice and bile. 

Application of linden

Linden inflorescences are used in the form of hot infusion as an antipyretic and anti-inflammatory agent for:

  • flu,
  • respiratory and catarrhal diseases,
  • bronchitis,
  • infectious diseases in children,
  • neuralgia,
  • cystitis, etc.

Infusion is also used as a bactericidal agent for rinsing the mouth and throat with sore throat.

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to the preparation, pollinosis.

Be careful:
Childhood, pregnancy and breastfeeding.

Linden fruits


Specification & Spread

Linden flowers — flores tiliae
Tillet — tilia cordata mill.
Big-leaf linden — tilia platyphyllos scop.
Linden family— tiliaceae
Other names: lime tree, teil, snake oil.


Both species are large deciduous trees up to 30 m high with a spreading head.
The young branches are covered with smooth and old - deeply cracked bark of grey-black colour.
The leaves are long-petiolate, rounded-heart-shaped, slightly unequal, with a long sharpened tip, with a serrate edge, dark green, glabrous above, bottom with tufts of hairs in branching veins.
The flowers are fragrant, pentamerous, with light yellow bracts, gathered in cymoid umbellate inflorescences.
The fruit is a globular walnut (pyrenarium).

It blooms in June - July, the fruits ripen in August - September.
Big-leaf linden tree blooms 1-2 weeks earlier. The distinctive features of both types are shown in the table.

Spreading. Tillet occupies a large area. It grows in the zone of deciduous forests of the European part of the country, comes to the Urals. Tillet takes large areas in Bashkiria, quite a lot of it in the Middle Volga region. To the north it moves a little further than the oak, as it is less demanding on the soil. In the north it occurs in the underbrush. Big-leaf linden linden naturally grows in the western regions of Ukraine. Both species of linden are widely cultivated in gardens and parks. In the Far East, in Moldova, Transcarpathia, other types of linden grow.

Habitat. It grows on drained and fertile soils.

Composition

The chemical composition of linden

Linden flowers contain:

  • essential oil (about 0.05%), which includes fesnezol sesquiterpene alcohol (the main component of the essential oil, from the presence of which the smell of fresh raw materials depends);
  • polysaccharides (7-10%), including mucus.

In addition, triterpene saponins, flavonoids in the amount of 4-5% (hesperidin, quercetin, kaempferol) were isolated from flowers, ascorbic acid and carotenoids.

Linden leaves contain:

  • a lot of protein,
  • there is ascorbic acid (131 mg%) and carotenoids.

In the fruit - about 60% fatty oil.

Harvesting and storage of raw materials

Harvesting. The harvesting is made only in dry weather, during flowering, when most of the flowers have blossomed, and the rest are still in buds. The whole inflorescences are harvested together with the bract. The raw materials are harvested at a later date, when some of the flowers have already blossomed, when drying turns brown, crumbles strongly and becomes non-standard. Usually, the harvesting of the raw materials lasts about 10 days. In addition to the official species of linden, the harvesting of inflorescences of other species is practically allowed: Tilia caucasica Rupr. - in the Caucasus, Tilia argentea Desf. - in the south-western regions of the European part of the country, Tilia sibirica Fisch. - in Western Siberia, Tilia amurensis Kom. - in the Far East.

Security measures. It is forbidden to cut and break branches, as well as to harvest inflorescences from trees growing near apiaries.


Drying. Linden flowers are dried in ventilated areas or in attics in the shade. In the sun, the raw materials are discolored. In view of the fragility of the axes of the inflorescences, it is better not to agitate it, but for drying it should be laid out in a thin layer (3-5 cm). When drying, the pleasant smell of flowers almost disappears. Drying is stopped when the flower stalks become brittle. It can be dried in dryers at a temperature not higher than 40-45 °C.

Storage. It is stored in a dark and dry room. In pharmacies it is stored in closed boxes, in warehouses it is stored in piles and bales. The raw materials are easily crushed, so care should be taken when storing.

External signs of raw materials

Whole raw materials

The umbellate inflorescences consist of 5-15 (tillet) or 2-9 (big-leaf linden) flowers on elongated pedicels, sitting on a common peduncle that grow together in the lower part with the main vein of the bracts.
The flowers are correct, 1-1.5 cm in diameter.
The calyx is of 5 oblong-ovate sepals, densely pubescent along the edge and from the inside.
The corolla is of 5 loose egg-shaped petals, longer than the calyx.
The stamens are numerous, fused in 5 beams.
The pistil is one with the upper globular ovary densely covered with fluffy hairs. There are flower buds and unripe fruits.
The bracts are membranous, with a dense network of veins, up to 6 cm long and up to 1.5 cm wide, oblong-elliptical in shape with a dull tip, in the lower half accreted along the main vein with a peduncle.

The colour of the petals is whitish yellow, the sepals are greenish or yellowish grey, and the bracts are light yellow or greenish yellow.
The smell is weak and fragrant.
The taste is sweet and slightly astringent, with a flavour of mucus.


Milled raw materials

A mixture of flowers, pedicels and pieces of bracts of various shapes are ranging in size from 0.5 to 20 mm.
The colour of the petals is whitish yellow, the sepals are greenish or yellowish grey, and the bracts are light yellow or greenish yellow.
The smell is weak and fragrant.
The taste is sweet and slightly astringent, with a flavour of mucus.

Properties and application

Pharmacotherapeutic group. Sudorific and anti-inflammatory agent.

The pharmacological properties of linden

Linden flower preparations have:

  • anti-inflammatory effects due to flavonoids and polysaccharides delay mainly exudative phase of inflammation, contribute to an earlier separation of the inflammatory process from the surrounding tissue.
  • Accelerate the processes of regeneration and the formation of granulation tissue, which is associated with the stimulating effect of flavonoids on collagen tissues;
  • possess antiseptic properties;
  • have antipyretic and diaphoretic effects,
  • promotes the excretion of sodium chloride from the body;
  • give antispasmodic effect;
  • lower blood pressure;
  • have a sedative effect;
  • increase diuresis;
  • increase the secretion of gastric juice and bile. 

Application of linden

Linden inflorescences are used in the form of hot infusion as an antipyretic and anti-inflammatory agent for:

  • flu,
  • respiratory and catarrhal diseases,
  • bronchitis,
  • infectious diseases in children,
  • neuralgia,
  • cystitis, etc.

Infusion is also used as a bactericidal agent for rinsing the mouth and throat with sore throat.

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to the preparation, pollinosis.

Be careful:
Childhood, pregnancy and breastfeeding.


 
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