Specification & Spread
Passionflower herb — herba passiflorae
Passiflora incarnata — passiflora incarnata l.
Passionflower family — passifloraceae
Other names: passionflower incarnate, passionflower.
It is a perennial herbaceous tropical vine, reaching 6–9 m long in humid subtropics of Georgia.
The stem is climbing, naked and rounded.
The leaves are alternate, long-peeled, leathery, green above and grayish below, tripartite, up to 20 cm long and wide. The elliptical loculars are with an acuminate tip and a serratulate edge. The tendrils develop in the leaf axils.
The flowers on long stalks are located singly in the axils of the leaves. It is large (7-9 cm in diameter), regular, pentamerous and with double perianth.
The sepals are lanceolate, leathery. The prickly outgrowths are carrying on the top.
The corolla consists of almost free petals and a bright purple colour «corona» (two rings of filiform fringes).
The fruit is an edible juicy berry of yellow-orange colour with black seeds.
The country of passionflower is tropical Brazil, as well as the subtropics of North America. It is cultivated since 1965 in Georgia (Kobuleti). Passionflower is propagated with segments of rhizomes, marketable products are obtained in the first year of laying the plantations.
Passionflower herb contains :
- about 0.05% of the amount of alkaloids,
- indole derivatives (harmine, harman, harmol, norgarman, etc.),
- flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, kempferol),
- free amino acids in total 5% ( dominated by tyrosine, proline, phenylalanine), carotenoids, ascorbic acid.
Harvesting and storage of raw materials
Harvesting. The herb is harvested in the phase of mass flowering - the beginning of fruiting.
Three harvests of the raw materials are usually carried out during the summer:
the first - when the shoots reach a length of 50-60 cm, in order to stimulate the development of lateral branches;
the second - in the phase of budding, the most developed shoots are harvested;
the third - in the phase of mass flowering - the beginning of fruiting, the entire above-ground part is removed, leaving only the rhizome for winter, from which new shoots grow next year. Drying. It is dried with heat drying at a temperature of 50-60 ºС.
External signs of raw materials
The raw material is a mixture of broken thin greenish non-lignified stems 1-4 mm thick tendrils twisted into a spiral, and broken, less often entire leaves, as well as buds, flowers and ripen fruits.
The stems are cylindrical, bare, finely striated and hollow.
The entire leaves or pieces of it, on both sides and mainly along the veins are slightly pubescent.
Buds oblong, with 5 spiky processes on the top.
The flowers are destroyed, sometimes there are parts of the «corona».
The fruit is an obovate berry, strongly wrinkled and fragile. The parts of the fruit are found in the raw materials.
The colour of the stems is from light to brownish green, the leaves are green, the fruit is grayish green.
The smell is weak and unpleasant. The taste is not determined(!).
Milled raw metrials.
The pieces of stems, leaves and fruits are passing through a sieve with holes of 7 mm in diameter.
Properties and application
Passionflower extract has:
- a sedative effect.
- educes reflex excitability,
- educes motor activity and
- as a weak anticonvulsant effect.
- ntispasmodic effect is negligible.
Passionflower preparations are used as:
sedative in patients with neurasthenic complaints and autonomic disorders on the background of various diseases of the nervous system, when, along with organic symptoms. There are complaints of increased irritability, nervousness, a weakening of inhibitory reactions, sleep disorders, palpitations, sweating.
Positive results are noted:
- when treating patients with passionflower in climacteric and preclimacteric periods,
- with increased nervousness, disability and sleep disorders, arterial hypertension.
Passionflower is prescribed for chronic alcoholism:
- it has a calming effect on patients in the period of abstinence,
- reduces the need for alcohol,
- eliminates neurotic disorders,
- improves mood, sleep,
- increases working capacity.
- myocardial infarction,
- atherosclerosis of the brain and heart vessels,
- pregnancy and lactation.