Peony (Urals peony). Anomalous peony herb, rhizomes and roots
Specification & Spread
Anomalous peony herb — herba paeoniae anomalae
Anomalous peony herb, rhizomes and roots — rhizomata et radices paeoniae anomalae
Anomalous peony — paeonia anomala l.
Paeoniaceae family — paeoniaceae
Other names: Urals peony.
It is a perennial herbaceous plant up to 1 m tall with a short many-headed rhizome and fleshy roots extending from it.
The stems are erect and numerous.
The leaves are alternate, trifoliate twice, with wide lanceolate segments.
The flowers are solitary, large, up to 13 cm in diameter. The calyx of five free leathery sepals, a nimbus of 5-8 free pink-red petals, many stamens, 3-5 pistils, free.
The fruit is a multiple fruit.
It blooms from late May to late June, the fruits ripen in late August - first half of September.
Spreading. It grows in the forest zone of the European part of Russia and Siberia; Kazakhstan and Central Asia.
Habitat. It grows mainly in forests, prefers river valleys, through which it comes into the mountains (altitude range 300-1980 m above sea level). It settles on soils rich in humus, characteristic of floodplain forests, as well as sparse larch, dark coniferous, birch and mixed forests, their edges, high-grass glades and taiga meadows. It is usually found absently separate clumps, but in places forms a small undergrowth.
The chemical composition of peony
In the underground organs there are:
- essential oil (up to 1.6%) containing methyl salicylate, as well as free benzoic and salicylic acids;
- glycoiridoids (peoniflorin, albiflorin, etc.);
- phenolic glucoside salicin;
- tannins (8.8%);
- flavonoids (0.13%);
It is found in the aboveground part:
- iridoids (up to 2.3%),
- ascorbic acid,
- traces of alkaloids,
- essential oil (0.01-0.08%).
Harvesting and storage of raw materials
Harvesting. In the peony, the underground and above-ground parts are simultaneously used, which make up a 1: 1 ratio (by weight of dry raw material) when preparing. The aerial parts, rhizomes and roots are harvested during flowering. The rhizomes and roots are dug out, shake off the ground, washed in water and cut into pieces. The aboveground part is separated from the rhizomes. In order to ensure a dry mass ratio of underground and aboveground organs of 1: 1, it is necessary to prepare about 200 kg of raw herb for every 100 kg of raw rhizomes and roots.
Security measures. At each site where the raw materials are harvested, only grass is harvested from some of the specimens to ensure renewal of thickets. On the same thickets, harvesting is recommended after 5 years. This species needs protection. In order not to damage the buds of renewal, the above-ground part is not torn down, but cut with a knife or sickle.
Drying. It is dried raw peony in attics or under sheds. It can be dried in dryers at a temperature not higher than 45-60 ºС. The underground and aboveground parts of plants are dried separately. After drying, parts of other plants, earth, pebbles and other impurities are removed.
Storage. It is stored in dry and well-ventilated areas, on racks or scaffold poles.
External signs of raw materials
Peony herb is a mixture of stems, leaves, flowers and buds. The stems are striated or ribbed, glabrous, up to 50 cm long and 2 cm thick.
The leaves are alternate, naked, strongly shriveled, with a long petiole and lamina 3-15 cm long; the lower ones have a tricyclic, and the upper ones are pinnate on the lanceolate pinnate segments.
The flowers are large, the calyx is of 5 different green sepals, 5-8 petals. Numerous stamens, pistils, sitting on the disk, 3-5.
The colour of the stems is brownish-green, the leaves are dark green on the upper side, light green on the lower side; the petals are reddish brown.
The smell is weak. The taste is slightly bitter.
The rhizomes and roots are pieces of various shapes, 1–9 cm long, 0.2–1.5 cm thick. Outside it is dark brown or yellowish brown, longitudinally wrinkled. The fracture is uneven, whitish-yellowish, sometimes purple on the edge. The cross-section shows sharply jutting yellowish wedge-shaped parts of wood and light core rays. The taste is sweet-burning, slightly astringent. It is characterized by a strong, peculiar smell of methyl salicylate.
Properties and application
Pharmacotherapeutic group. Sedative agent.
The pharmacological properties and application of peony
It has a sedative effect on the central nervous system.
It is used when:
The raw materials are used to make tinctures, which are prescribed as a sedative when:
- neurasthenic conditions,
- vegetative-vascular disorders of various etiologies.
Peony (Urals peony) is a very popular plant in traditional medicine in Western Siberia, widely used in traditional medicine - Tibetan, Chinese and Mongolian.
It is used as an antitumor agent.
Hypersensitivity, hepatic and / or renal failure, children's age (up to 12 years), pregnancy, lactation period.