Specification & Spread
Macleaya herb — herba macleayae
Plume poppy — macleaya cordata (willd.) R. Br.
Boccomia — macleaya microcarpa (maxim.) Fedde
Poppy family — papaveraceae
Plume poppy and bocconia are perennial herbaceous plants up to 2.5 m tall, containing orange-yellow laticifer.The leaves are ovoid in outline, 5-7-separate, alternate, petiolate, lower, up to 25 cm long, upper ones are much shorter. The flowers are with a simple calycine perianth (morphologically it is a calyx), which fall off when the flowers bloom. There are 8-30 stamens. The fruit is a calyx. These two species differ in the structure of flowers and fruits. Plume poppy is ovoid in flowers with 25-30 stamens, a lanceolate capsule is with 2-6 seeds. There are 8-12 stamens in bocconia. The capsule is rounded with one seed.
It blooms in July, the fruits ripen in August.
The country of macleaya is Japan and China.
In Russia, it is cultivated in the Krasnodar Territory.
The herb contains isoquinoline alkaloids (up to 1.2%), the main ones are sanguinarine and chelerythrine (up to 0.8%).
Harvesting and storage of raw materials
Harvesting. The herb is harvested before budding and during budding. The highest content of alkaloids is noted for plants of three years of age. The cleaning of raw materials is mechanized. After mowing, the top part of the plant is cut by silage cutters.
Drying. It is dried by the heat drying at a temperature of 40-50 °C.
External signs of raw materials
The raw material is a mixture of pieces of stems, leaves and buds.
The pieces of stems is up to 15 cm long and up to 1.5 cm in diameter and cylindrical in shape, longitudinally ribbed, hollow inside, sometimes split along. Outside it is from yellowish gray to brownish gray, sometimes with a waxy coating. A yellowish-brown cow and white friable core are visible on the cross-section.
The pieces of leaves of various shapes are up to 10 cm in size. The upper surface is bare, from brownish green to brownish yellow or greyish green. The lower surface is slightly pubescent, grey or yellowish grey.
The pieces of leaf petioles are up to 12 cm long and up to 1 cm thick, irregularly cylindrical, lecotropal at the base, sometimes flattened and of the same colour as the stems.
The buds are up to 0.7 cm long, cylindrical (small-fruited) or club-shaped (a heart-shaped plume poppy), yellowish-brown in colour. The smell is weak. The taste is not determined(!)
Properties and application
Sanguinarine and chelerythrine alkaloids:
- possess a wide range of antimicrobial activity,
- gram-positive and
- gram negative bacteria,
- yeast-like and
- mycelial fungi.
- possess anticholinesterase activity.
Application of macleaya
The macleaya has:
- anticholinesterase and
- antifungal activity.
Inside it is used for:
- residual effects of polio,
- flaccid paralysis, etc.
- wound and burn infections,
- non-healing wounds and ulcers,
- periodontitis and etc.
It is forbidden for pregnant women as well as during breastfeeding, epilepsy. bronchial asthma and angina