Specification & Spread
Raspberry fruits — fructus rubi idaei
European raspberry — rubus idaeus l.
Rose family — rosaceae.
It is a soboliferous prickly shrub with biennial above-ground shoots of 0.5-1.8 m tall.
The shoots of the first year are fruitless, with spines bent down, green with a bluish bloom, the second year - fructifying, ligneous, yellowish, with spines only on the lateral green twigs. The leaves are alternate, unpaired-pinis-complex with 3-5 (7) ovate leaves, serrated on the edge of the leaves, from below white-white from pubescence.
The flowers are in axillary few-flowered racemes, gathered in paniculate inflorescence. The sepals are bent off, grey-green, white corolla, numerous stamens and pistils, located on a convex receptacle. The fruit is a crimson-red spherical-conical multi-peasant up to 2 cm in diameter, consists of numerous (30-60) stone farms, easily separated after ripening from the conical white fruit bed.
It blooms in June - July, the fruits ripen in July - August.
Spreading. It has a torn area, the main part of which is located in the forest and forest-steppe zones of the European part of Russia and Western Siberia.
Habitat. In the forest zone, it prefers rich wet soils. It grows on forest edges, on clearings, burns, forest glades, along river banks, ravines, in clarified forests. It is cultivated everywhere as a food and medicinal plant.
The chemical composition of raspberry
The fruits contain:
- sugar up to 7.5%,
- organic acids (malic, citric, salicylic, tartaric, sorbic) up to 2%,
- pectic substances 0.45-0.73%,
- ascorbic acid to 0.45 mg%,
- vitamins B2, P, E,
- triterpenic acids,
- tannins and nitrogenous substances
- mineral salts.
The seeds contain:
- up to 15% of fatty oil;
- concentrate manganese.
Harvesting and storage of raw materials
Harvesting. The fruits are harvested only in dry weather, quite mature, without peduncles and a conical white the fruit bed. It is put in small shallow baskets or enamelled buckets, shifted by leaves or twigs, and, if possible, delivered to the place of drying within a short time. The harvested fruits are cleaned from leaves, twigs, as well as from unripe, over-ripe, crumpled and spoiled fruits.
Security measures. Raspberries are actively propagated by rhizomes, as well as by seed. The plant is abundant fruits in 3-4 years. When harvesting the raw materials should not trample down and break the shrub, especially annual shoots. The plant should be actively introduced into the culture, including in natural conditions.
Drying. The raw materials are dried, after preliminary wilting, in dryers with a gradual increase in temperature (30-50-60ºС), spreading it in a thin layer on a cloth or paper and gently turning it over. The dry fruits are elastic to the touch.
Storage. It is stored in a dry and well-ventilated area, protected from pests and loosely packed in bags.
External signs of raw materials
The fruits are multi-peasant, consisting of 30-60 farmer-stone farms, round-cone-shaped, about 1 cm in diameter.
Outside the colour is greyish pink.
The pulp is pink, the stones are dark yellow.
The smell is pleasant and characteristic. The taste is sour-sweet.
Properties and application
The pharmacological properties of raspberry
Raspberry fruit possess
- diaphoretic action.
Due to the presence of weak organic acids, fruits contribute to
- removal from the body of uric acid salts
- stimulate urination,
- improve digestion.
Salicylic acid contained in fruits has:
- diaphoretic and
- anti-inflammatory effect.
At present, raspberry leaves are being actively studied, their hemostatic property has been established.
The extract from the leaves of raspberry has
- hormone-like effect on experimental animals.
Application of raspberry
The fruits of raspberry are used in the form of infusion as:
- diaphoretic and
- antipyretic for colds alone and as part of diaphoretic fees.
The raspberry juice has
- diuretic and
- expectorant action.
The fresh fruit syrup has been used to improve the taste of medicines.
The fresh fruits are recommended as:
- vitamin and
- dietary product with
- to improve appetite and digestion.
Infusion of raspberry leaves is used in folk medicine as:
- anti-inflammatory and
- expectorant for diseases,
- upper respiratory tract,
- diseases of the gastrointestinal tract,
- as well as a hemostatic agent.
With caution in diabetes and susceptibility to allergic reactions, with thrombosis.