Specification & Spread
Rosemary leaves — folia rosmarini
Rosemary fresh fruits – cormi rosmarini recentes
Rosemary oil – oleum rosmarini
Rosemary — rosmarinus officinalis l.
Labiate family – lamiaceae (labiatae)
It is an evergreen shrub 0.5-1.5 m tall, strongly branched.
The stems and old branches are woody, with grey-brown cracked bark.
The young branches are tetrahedral, densely white-pubescent.
The leaves are opposite, sessile, linear with curved edges, 3-4 cm long, leathery, shiny on top, dark green, bare, white-tomentose and pubescent below. The median vein is dented from above, sharply below.
The flowers are collected in racemes.
The calyx is bell-shaped, two-lipped.
The corolla is pale blue, double-lipped; the upper lip is deeply bilobed, the lower - with a wide speckled middle lobe and two narrow lateral ones.
The fruit - cenobium of 4 smooth rounded ovoid lobes, enclosed in the remaining calyx.
Spreading and habitat. It grows wildly along the shores of the Mediterranean, on dry, rocky, sunny slopes.
It is widely cultivated in the dry subtropics of many countries (Southern Europe, the Black Sea Coast of the Caucasus, India, etc.).
The chemical composition of rosemary
The leaves contain 1-2% of essential oil, which includes:
- alpha pinene (30%),
- camphene (20%),
- borneol (10%),
- cineole (10%),
- bornyl acetate (up to 7%) and other terpenoids.
Essential oil is almost colorless.
In addition to the essential oil there are contained:
- diterpenoids (carnosol, carnoside acid),
- triterpenic acids (oleanolic and ursolic),
- rosemary acid,
- alkaloids of the pyrrolidine group.
Harvesting and storage of raw materials
Harvesting. The leafy shoots are harvested in July - August, starting from the third - fourth year after planting. During this period, the plants contain the maximum amount of essential oil.
Drying. It is stored in the shade under a canopy or in a dryer at a temperature of 35-40 ºС.
Properties and application
Pharmacotherapeutic group. Antiseptic agent.
Application of rosemary
The infusion of rosemary leaves is used as:
- anti-inflammatory agent: with a breakdown, heart neurosis,
- as a choleretic agent: with neuritis, catarrhal diseases, difficult healing wounds, boils (in the form of lotions),
- in gynecological practice as a means of accelerating menstruation.
From the fresh leaves and shoots harvesters can get the essential oil which is used:
- for inhalations for colds,
- in the form of ointments and rubbing with rheumatism and radiculitis.
The plant is included in the British herbal pharmacopoeia, European pharmacopoeia.
- individual intolerance,
- period of pregnancy and lactation.