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Specification & Spread

Sage leaves — folia salviae
Garden sage — salvia officinalis l.
Labiate family – lamiaceae (labiatae)

It is a semishrub 20-50 cm tall.
The stems are numerous, branched at the bottom, rounded, woody, in the upper part it is grassy and tetrahedral.
The leaves are simple, long-petiolate, oblong or elongate-lanceolate with an acuminate tip, wedge-shaped at the base, rounded or slightly cordate; at the base of the plate there are often one or two small oblong blades; the leaves are located opposite.
The stem and leaves are densely pubescent, grey-green.
The flowers are large (up to 2 cm long); the calyx is double-lipped, pubescent; the corolla is double-faced, usually blue-violet; 2 stamens.
The inflorescence - raceme thirs.
The fruit - cenobium, disintegrating into 4 lobes (erema).
Smell. The plant has a strong aromatic smell.

It flowers in June - July, bears fruit in August - September.

Spreading. The country of garden sage is Asia Minor, from where it spread throughout the Mediterranean and the Balkan Peninsula. In Russia, in the wild it is not found. It is cultivated in specialized farms in Moldova, Ukraine (Crimea), in the North Caucasus. It is improved high-yielding varieties with a high content of essential oil.

Habitat. The plant is thermophilic, drought-resistant. For the culture there are found isolated fertile, sunlit areas.

Composition

The chemical composition of sage

The leaves contain essential oil (0.5-2.5%), which consists of:

  • cineole (15%),
  • pinen,
  • thujone,
  • salvain
  • borneol,
  • camphor and other terpenoids. 

It is also found in the leaves:

  • flavonoids,
  • tannins,
  • triterpenic acids - ursolic and oleanolic,
  • diterpenoids,
  • phenolic acids,
  • bitterness,
  • phytoncides. 

The numerical indicators of the raw materials

Harvesting and storage of raw materials

Harvesting. The fully developed leaves are harvested during the summer. The harvesting is produced in a mechanized way. The herb is mowed with mowers, then threshed, the leaves are separated from the stems by sifting through a sieve.

Security measures. The thickets recover slowly. Do not damage the roots during harvesting.

Drying. It is dried in dryers at a temperature of 35-40 ° C.

Storage. The pharmacies store it in closed boxes, in warehouses - in fabric and paper multilayer bags and bales according to the rules for storing essential oil raw materials. The content of the essential oil is checked annually.

External signs of raw materials

Whole raw materials

The pieces of leaves of various shapes and whole leaves ranging in size from 1 to 35 mm with a small number of other parts of the plant (pieces of stems, flowers with or without pedicels). The surface of the leaves is uniformly wrinkled or finely cellular with a dense network of veins strongly pressed in from above and protruding from below; the leaves are covered with long hairs, especially from the bottom.
The edge of the leaf is small-billed.
The pieces of stalks are tetrahedral, pubescent;
the flowers are with a lipped calyx and a lipped blue-violet corolla.
The leaf colour is green, greyish green or silvery white.
The smell is fragrant.
The taste is bitter-spicy, slightly astringent.

Powder

A mixture of particles passing through a sieve with holes of 2 mm diameter.
The colour is from greenish grey to dark grey with whitish patches.
The smell is fragrant.
The taste is bitter-spicy, slightly astringent.

Properties and application

Pharmacotherapeutic group. Antiseptic and anti-inflammatory effect.
The pharmacological properties of sage

The sage leaf preparations possess:

  • antiseptic,
  • anti-inflammatory properties.

Antimicrobial properties due to essential oil, anti-inflammatory - tannins, flavonoid compounds and vitamin P, which compact epithelial tissue, reduce the permeability of cell membranes, blood and lymphatic vessels.
The antiseptic properties of sage leaves are caused by plant antibiotics salvin and cineol. They not only delay the reproduction of Staphylococcus aureus, but also inactivate it, inhibit hemolytic and dermatonecrotic properties.

Sage essential oil possesses

  • antifungal and
  • antiviral activity. 

The sage leaves preparations containing bitterness, essential oils and other biologically active substances.

It:

  • increases the secretory activity of the gastrointestinal tract,
  • have an expectorant, sedative, hypoglycemic, hemostatic, antispasmodic, astringent effect,
  • reduces perspiration and
  • weakens the secretion of the mammary glands.

Application of sage

The healing properties of sage are known since ancient times.

Traditionally, the application of warm sage leaves infusion to rinse:

  • in acute tonsillitis and chronic tonsillitis,
  • acute respiratory diseases,
  • stomatitis,
  • gingivitis
  • oral lesions,
  • and also for the treatment of pulpitis.

The sage leaves are used as:

  • anti-inflammatory and
  • hemostatic for inflammation of hemorrhoids.

The sage is used in a complex of therapeutic measures for:

  • articular rheumatism,
  • chronic inflammatory processes,
  • with metabolic and dystrophic diseases of the joints,
  • with radiculitis, osteochondrosis in the form of general or local baths, for applications. 

For better penetration of the components of the medicinal plant through the skin, sage preparations are used with phonophoresis.
The infusion of sage leaves is used in gastritis, accompanied by low acidity, as well as spastic colitis.
When taking preparations of sage possible side effects:

  • lip swelling,
  • dry mouth. 

Contraindications

Its application during pregnancy is contraindicated.
With a strong cough, asthma, gastritis with increased secretion and nephritis is recommended to use with caution.

Sage leaves


Specification & Spread

Sage leaves — folia salviae
Garden sage — salvia officinalis l.
Labiate family – lamiaceae (labiatae)

It is a semishrub 20-50 cm tall.
The stems are numerous, branched at the bottom, rounded, woody, in the upper part it is grassy and tetrahedral.
The leaves are simple, long-petiolate, oblong or elongate-lanceolate with an acuminate tip, wedge-shaped at the base, rounded or slightly cordate; at the base of the plate there are often one or two small oblong blades; the leaves are located opposite.
The stem and leaves are densely pubescent, grey-green.
The flowers are large (up to 2 cm long); the calyx is double-lipped, pubescent; the corolla is double-faced, usually blue-violet; 2 stamens.
The inflorescence - raceme thirs.
The fruit - cenobium, disintegrating into 4 lobes (erema).
Smell. The plant has a strong aromatic smell.

It flowers in June - July, bears fruit in August - September.

Spreading. The country of garden sage is Asia Minor, from where it spread throughout the Mediterranean and the Balkan Peninsula. In Russia, in the wild it is not found. It is cultivated in specialized farms in Moldova, Ukraine (Crimea), in the North Caucasus. It is improved high-yielding varieties with a high content of essential oil.

Habitat. The plant is thermophilic, drought-resistant. For the culture there are found isolated fertile, sunlit areas.

Composition

The chemical composition of sage

The leaves contain essential oil (0.5-2.5%), which consists of:

  • cineole (15%),
  • pinen,
  • thujone,
  • salvain
  • borneol,
  • camphor and other terpenoids. 

It is also found in the leaves:

  • flavonoids,
  • tannins,
  • triterpenic acids - ursolic and oleanolic,
  • diterpenoids,
  • phenolic acids,
  • bitterness,
  • phytoncides. 

The numerical indicators of the raw materials

Harvesting and storage of raw materials

Harvesting. The fully developed leaves are harvested during the summer. The harvesting is produced in a mechanized way. The herb is mowed with mowers, then threshed, the leaves are separated from the stems by sifting through a sieve.

Security measures. The thickets recover slowly. Do not damage the roots during harvesting.

Drying. It is dried in dryers at a temperature of 35-40 ° C.

Storage. The pharmacies store it in closed boxes, in warehouses - in fabric and paper multilayer bags and bales according to the rules for storing essential oil raw materials. The content of the essential oil is checked annually.

External signs of raw materials

Whole raw materials

The pieces of leaves of various shapes and whole leaves ranging in size from 1 to 35 mm with a small number of other parts of the plant (pieces of stems, flowers with or without pedicels). The surface of the leaves is uniformly wrinkled or finely cellular with a dense network of veins strongly pressed in from above and protruding from below; the leaves are covered with long hairs, especially from the bottom.
The edge of the leaf is small-billed.
The pieces of stalks are tetrahedral, pubescent;
the flowers are with a lipped calyx and a lipped blue-violet corolla.
The leaf colour is green, greyish green or silvery white.
The smell is fragrant.
The taste is bitter-spicy, slightly astringent.

Powder

A mixture of particles passing through a sieve with holes of 2 mm diameter.
The colour is from greenish grey to dark grey with whitish patches.
The smell is fragrant.
The taste is bitter-spicy, slightly astringent.

Properties and application

Pharmacotherapeutic group. Antiseptic and anti-inflammatory effect.
The pharmacological properties of sage

The sage leaf preparations possess:

  • antiseptic,
  • anti-inflammatory properties.

Antimicrobial properties due to essential oil, anti-inflammatory - tannins, flavonoid compounds and vitamin P, which compact epithelial tissue, reduce the permeability of cell membranes, blood and lymphatic vessels.
The antiseptic properties of sage leaves are caused by plant antibiotics salvin and cineol. They not only delay the reproduction of Staphylococcus aureus, but also inactivate it, inhibit hemolytic and dermatonecrotic properties.

Sage essential oil possesses

  • antifungal and
  • antiviral activity. 

The sage leaves preparations containing bitterness, essential oils and other biologically active substances.

It:

  • increases the secretory activity of the gastrointestinal tract,
  • have an expectorant, sedative, hypoglycemic, hemostatic, antispasmodic, astringent effect,
  • reduces perspiration and
  • weakens the secretion of the mammary glands.

Application of sage

The healing properties of sage are known since ancient times.

Traditionally, the application of warm sage leaves infusion to rinse:

  • in acute tonsillitis and chronic tonsillitis,
  • acute respiratory diseases,
  • stomatitis,
  • gingivitis
  • oral lesions,
  • and also for the treatment of pulpitis.

The sage leaves are used as:

  • anti-inflammatory and
  • hemostatic for inflammation of hemorrhoids.

The sage is used in a complex of therapeutic measures for:

  • articular rheumatism,
  • chronic inflammatory processes,
  • with metabolic and dystrophic diseases of the joints,
  • with radiculitis, osteochondrosis in the form of general or local baths, for applications. 

For better penetration of the components of the medicinal plant through the skin, sage preparations are used with phonophoresis.
The infusion of sage leaves is used in gastritis, accompanied by low acidity, as well as spastic colitis.
When taking preparations of sage possible side effects:

  • lip swelling,
  • dry mouth. 

Contraindications

Its application during pregnancy is contraindicated.
With a strong cough, asthma, gastritis with increased secretion and nephritis is recommended to use with caution.


 
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