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Specification & Spread

Securinega shoots — cormi securinegae
Suffruticous securinega — securinega suffruticosa (pall.) Rehd. ( = flugea suffruticosa (pall.) Baill.)
Spurge family — euphorbiaceae
Other names: securinega.

It is a sprawling shrub 1.5-3 m tall, with numerous straight, thin, bare branches. The young shoots are light yellow; on old branches the bark is greyish.
The leaves are alternate, short-petiolate, elliptical or broadly lanceolate form, entire, bare, light green, 1.5-7 cm long, 0.6-3.5 cm wide.
The flowers are dioecious, axillary, green or greenish-yellow, with a simple cup-shaped perianth. The stamen flowers are arranged in bunches of 3-12 on pedicels 2-4 mm long. The single pistillate flowers, rarely 3-8, on longer stalks.
The fruit is a three-capsule box with 6 smooth seeds.

It blooms in June - July, the fruits ripen in September - October.

Spreading. It has a Manchurian type of habitat, grows in Eastern Siberia (Dauria), in the Far East of Russia in the Amur Region, the Khabarovsk and Primorsky Territories. The large thickets does not form, so the raw material was harvested from cultivated plants. The planted securinega were in specialized farms in the Krasnodar Territory (Russia) and Ukraine (Prikarpatye).

Habitat. It grows among rocks, on dry stony slopes, on pebbles, along dry edges.

Composition

All plant organs contain alkaloids, the main of it is securinine.
In young shoots, up to 0.8% of the amount of alkaloids accumulates, securinine - 0.15-0.4%.

In addition to securinine, alkaloids are found in the plant such as:

  • suffrutikodin,
  • suffruticonin,
  • allosecurinin,
  • securinegin, securinol A, B, C, etc. 

The shoots also contain:

  • tannins (4.84-7.59%),
  • flavonoids (rutin - up to 2.18%),
  • organic acids, resins.
     

Harvesting and storage of raw materials

Harvesting. The non-lignified tops of shoots are harvested in the flowering phase - fruiting from June to September.

Drying. Air drying or in dryers at a temperature of 40-50 ºС.

External signs of raw materials

The pieces of stems, leaves from 1 to 5 cm in size, flowers and less often fruits.
The stems are ribbed.
The leaves are short, entire and bare.
The flowers are dioecious, very small, about 0.2 cm long.
The fruit is a three-capsule box with six seeds, flattened above, rounded three-lobed, about 0.5 cm in diameter. The seeds are smooth, dull-triangular, small.

The colour of the stems is yellowish-green or reddish, the leaves are green, the flowers are greenish-yellow, the fruits are brownish-green, the seeds are brown.
The smell is weak. Taste does not define (!).

Properties and application

Securinine stimulates the central nervous system, increases the reflex excitability of the spinal cord, and is close to strychnine in the nature of its action.
It stimulates the respiratory center and increases blood pressure, strengthens heart contractions and improves muscle tone. When it is applied in high doses, securinine has a characteristic convulsive effect, similar to the effects of strychnine.
Compared with strychnine, securinine acts slightly weaker, but less toxic (8-10 times).

Application of securinega:

  • in various asthenoneurotic conditions it is accompanied by hypotension, weakness, fatigue, as well as impotence on the basis of functional nervous disorders.

Application of securinine:

  • with paresis and paralysis after poliomyelitis in the recovery period of the disease,
  • with paresis and paralysis due to a decrease in the excitability of the neuro-reflex apparatus,
  • with flaccid paralysis, developing after infectious diseases.

Contraindications

It should be remembered that the plant is extremely poisonous, its reception is best carried out not only as intended, but also under the supervision of a doctor. contraindicated in nephritis and hypertension, as well as in bronchial asthma. From the application of such a plant will have to give up during pregnancy. It also excludes securineg in acute poliomyelitis, muscle spasms, respiratory disorders, in the presence of meningeal syndrome, and also with a significant limitation of joint mobility

Suffruticous securinega


Specification & Spread

Securinega shoots — cormi securinegae
Suffruticous securinega — securinega suffruticosa (pall.) Rehd. ( = flugea suffruticosa (pall.) Baill.)
Spurge family — euphorbiaceae
Other names: securinega.

It is a sprawling shrub 1.5-3 m tall, with numerous straight, thin, bare branches. The young shoots are light yellow; on old branches the bark is greyish.
The leaves are alternate, short-petiolate, elliptical or broadly lanceolate form, entire, bare, light green, 1.5-7 cm long, 0.6-3.5 cm wide.
The flowers are dioecious, axillary, green or greenish-yellow, with a simple cup-shaped perianth. The stamen flowers are arranged in bunches of 3-12 on pedicels 2-4 mm long. The single pistillate flowers, rarely 3-8, on longer stalks.
The fruit is a three-capsule box with 6 smooth seeds.

It blooms in June - July, the fruits ripen in September - October.

Spreading. It has a Manchurian type of habitat, grows in Eastern Siberia (Dauria), in the Far East of Russia in the Amur Region, the Khabarovsk and Primorsky Territories. The large thickets does not form, so the raw material was harvested from cultivated plants. The planted securinega were in specialized farms in the Krasnodar Territory (Russia) and Ukraine (Prikarpatye).

Habitat. It grows among rocks, on dry stony slopes, on pebbles, along dry edges.

Composition

All plant organs contain alkaloids, the main of it is securinine.
In young shoots, up to 0.8% of the amount of alkaloids accumulates, securinine - 0.15-0.4%.

In addition to securinine, alkaloids are found in the plant such as:

  • suffrutikodin,
  • suffruticonin,
  • allosecurinin,
  • securinegin, securinol A, B, C, etc. 

The shoots also contain:

  • tannins (4.84-7.59%),
  • flavonoids (rutin - up to 2.18%),
  • organic acids, resins.
     

Harvesting and storage of raw materials

Harvesting. The non-lignified tops of shoots are harvested in the flowering phase - fruiting from June to September.

Drying. Air drying or in dryers at a temperature of 40-50 ºС.

External signs of raw materials

The pieces of stems, leaves from 1 to 5 cm in size, flowers and less often fruits.
The stems are ribbed.
The leaves are short, entire and bare.
The flowers are dioecious, very small, about 0.2 cm long.
The fruit is a three-capsule box with six seeds, flattened above, rounded three-lobed, about 0.5 cm in diameter. The seeds are smooth, dull-triangular, small.

The colour of the stems is yellowish-green or reddish, the leaves are green, the flowers are greenish-yellow, the fruits are brownish-green, the seeds are brown.
The smell is weak. Taste does not define (!).

Properties and application

Securinine stimulates the central nervous system, increases the reflex excitability of the spinal cord, and is close to strychnine in the nature of its action.
It stimulates the respiratory center and increases blood pressure, strengthens heart contractions and improves muscle tone. When it is applied in high doses, securinine has a characteristic convulsive effect, similar to the effects of strychnine.
Compared with strychnine, securinine acts slightly weaker, but less toxic (8-10 times).

Application of securinega:

  • in various asthenoneurotic conditions it is accompanied by hypotension, weakness, fatigue, as well as impotence on the basis of functional nervous disorders.

Application of securinine:

  • with paresis and paralysis after poliomyelitis in the recovery period of the disease,
  • with paresis and paralysis due to a decrease in the excitability of the neuro-reflex apparatus,
  • with flaccid paralysis, developing after infectious diseases.

Contraindications

It should be remembered that the plant is extremely poisonous, its reception is best carried out not only as intended, but also under the supervision of a doctor. contraindicated in nephritis and hypertension, as well as in bronchial asthma. From the application of such a plant will have to give up during pregnancy. It also excludes securineg in acute poliomyelitis, muscle spasms, respiratory disorders, in the presence of meningeal syndrome, and also with a significant limitation of joint mobility


 
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