Specification & Spread
Star anise fruits (Badian) — fructus anisi stellati
Star anise (Badian) — illicium verum hook. Fil.
Illiciaceae family — illiciaceae
Other names: Badian
It is an evergreen low tree.
The leaves are alternate, leathery, shiny, oblong-elliptical with a pointed tip, entire, 4-8 cm long. The spots are visible on the lumen (ethereal oil reservoirs).
The flowers are solitary, 2-3 cm in diameter, yellowish-white.
The three-leaved calyx, the corolla is from 15–20 narrow-lanceolate free petals arranged in several rows, 15-20 stamens, gynecium from 8 mutually spaced carpels directed upwards, when the fruit ripens gradually deviating horizontally.
The fruit is a multiple face in the form of a star.
Spreading and habitat. The country of anise is Southeast Asia, where it occurs in the mountains at an altitude of 600-1600 meters above sea level. It is cultivated in China, India, Vietnam, Japan, the Philippines, the Antilles.
The chemical composition of star anise (Badian)
The fruits contain:
- 4-5% of essential oil,
- tannins; in the seeds there is fatty oil.
Essential oil consists:
- almost completely from anethole (more than 90%),
- alpha pinen,
- alpha-terpineol and others.
Harvesting and storage of raw materials
Harvesting and drying. The ripe fruits are harvested and dried at a temperature of 35-40 ºС.
External signs of raw materials
The fruits are 14-18 mm in diameter, star-shaped, usually consisting of 8 (7-12) single-seeded leaflets, arranged radially around the short column in the form of an asterisk.
The leaflets are boat-shaped, drop-down, laterally compressed, rigid, woody, dark brown in colour; the seeds are shiny, yellow-brown, elliptical.
The taste is sweet and spicy.
The smell is reminiscent of anise, but much thinner and more fragrant. Anise (skimmi, sikimmi, shikimi)
In the south of Japan and in South Korea there is anise (sacred anise) or Illicium anisatum L. (= I. religiosum Sieb. and Zucc.), which is often bred as a sacred plant in temples and Buddhist cemeteries.
Its poisonous fruits (Fructus Skimi) are difficult to distinguish from star anise in appearance, but it has an unpleasant smell that does not resemble from anise.
The fruits of the skimmi are smaller, the individual leaflets are more wide open, and the seeds are round. When boiling with a weak solution of potassium hydroxide, the fruit decoction becomes brownish-orange in colour, and the star anise decoction becomes blood-red.
Skimmi fruits contain a poisonous alkaloid skimmianine and essential oil that does not contain anethole and consists mainly of terpenes.
In the presence of skimmi fruit in the raw materials, the entire batch of raw star anise is rejected.
Properties and application
The pharmacotherapeutic group. Expectorant.
Application of star anise (Badian)
The star anise is a part of the pharmacopoeias of a number of countries (Switzerland, Austria, France, Brazil and China).
It is applied as
- carminative and
- laxatives, most often as part of fees.
From the essential oil anethole is received, which is part of the preparations used for the same purpose.
With care during pregnancy or in the presence of gastrointestinal diseases, urinary system in the acute stage.