Specification & Spread

Fresh bulbs garlic — bulbi allii sativi recentes
Garlic — allium sativum l.
Alliaceae family — alliaceae.

It is a perennial bulbous herbaceous plant with a sharp peculiar odour.
The bulb consists of individual slices («cloves»), enclosed in leathery shells and surrounded by a common whitish or lilac membranous membrane. The stems are formed from each lobule are erect, up to 70 cm in height, and their lower part (approximately half) is dressed with leaf sheaths. The stems bear flat linear, with a pronounced keel on the underside of the leaves and the apical little-flowered umbellate inflorescence, surrounded by a univalent curtain falling in bloom, continued into a long nose.
The flowers are small, on long pedicels, with 6-leaf corolla-shaped perianth off-white or pale lilac, 6 stamens and pistil with the upper ovary. Sometimes, instead of flowers, small, almost spherical bulbous flowers with a spout are developed in the inflorescence. The fruit is a capsule.

It blooms in July – August, the fruits in the conditions of Russia are usually not tied.

In the wild form is found in Armenia. Garlic has been cultivated for many millennia in all countries of the world. In Russia, garlic is a popular garden plant bred everywhere.


The chemical composition of garlic

Bulbs contain

  • phytoncides,
  • essential oil (up to 0.4%) containing sulfur-containing compounds (disulfides),
  • thiocyanate – alliin (precursor of allicin),
  • phytosterols,
  • nitrogen compounds,
  • ascorbic acid,
  • B vitamins, and other biologically active substances;
  • concentrate selenium.

Allicin is the most important component in biological activity; it is not found in garlic, but is quickly formed from alliin under the influence of the enzyme alliinase in violation of the integrity of plant tissues.

Dry garlic bulbs contain stable:

  • alliin and
  • alliinase, but when wetted, the conditions for the formation of allicin are created.

Harvesting and storage of raw materials

Harvesting. The bulbs are dug out in the autumn after the leaves wither and the stems have dried.

The bulbs are ovoid, consist of 6-30 small bulbs («cloves»), enclosed in a common membranous whitish or lilac shell.
The bulbs have a sharp characteristic odor and burning taste. Volatile substances irritate the mucous membranes of the eyes and nose.

Properties and application

The pharmacological properties of garlic


  • whets the appetite
  • enhances the secretion of enzymes in the digestive organs,
  • promotes the best digestion and assimilation of food.

Garlic oil

It has a strong bactericidal effect, so eating garlic has a disinfecting value. It is believed that it kills the causative agents of many extremely dangerous infectious diseases and at the same time increases the resistance of the human body to pathogens.

Recent studies have revealed the ability of garlic preparations:

  • reduce cholesterol deposition in the walls of blood vessels,
  • reduce elevated blood lipid concentrations,
  • increase the nonspecific reactivity of the organism.

It possesses:

  • antihypertensives,
  • lipid-lowering,
  • hypocholesterolemic and
  • general tonic action.

Application of garlic

Garlic tincture is applied:

  • for colds of the upper respiratory tract (bronchitis, tracheitis, etc.) as part of complex therapy;
  • with intestinal atony.

Preparations based on powder and garlic oil are prescribed for:

  • hypertension,
  • atherosclerosis,
  • hyperlipidemia,
  • to increase the body’s resistance to colds.

A thick extract of garlic bulbs – one of the main components of the complex preparation «Allohol», used as an effective choleretic agent for:

  • cholecystitis,
  • hepatitis
  • cholangitis and other diseases of the liver and gallbladder,
  • and also as improving digestion with habitual constipation.

The proven traditional medicine against pathogens:

  • acute respiratory diseases and
  • sore throat is inhaling the smell of pounded garlic bulbs.

In traditional medicine, garlic is used very widely as an internal and external remedy.
for the treatment of various diseases and ailments.

The preparations of garlic are contraindicated in diseases of the kidneys, as they can cause irritation of the renal parenchyma.