Wild marigold flowers
Specification & Spread
Wild marigold flowers — flores chamomillae discoideae
Wild marigold — Chamomilla suaveolens (Pursh) Rydb. ( = Chamomilla discoidea DC.; Matricaria suaveolens (Pursh) Buch.; M. matricarioides (Less.) Porter.)
Composite family – Asteraceae (Compositae)
Other names: camomile,pyrethrum, matricary, chamomel.
It is an annual plant with 15-30 cm tall with erect, branched, densely leafy stem.
The leaves are alternate, twice pinnate on narrow linear-lanceolate segments.
The baskets are located at the ends of the stems and branches on very short peduncles.
The basket cover is a multi-row; the inflorescence bed is conic, bare, hollow.
All flowers in the basket are tubular, small, yellow-green, with a 4-toothed corolla. The false flowers are absent.
It blooms in July - September.
Spreading. Wild marigold is found only as a weed almost throughout the entire European part of Russia, Siberia, and the Far East.
Habitat. It grows near housing, on fallow lands, wastelands, in littered places, along roads, often forming continuous thickets. In some areas of Siberia - difficult to eradicate weed fields.
The chemical composition of wild marigold
Wild marigold flowers contain :
- up to 0.8% of essential oil containing: acyclic sesquiterpenoids (farneseene), acyclic monoterpenoids (myrcene), monocyclic monoterpenoids (geraniol), traces of chamazulene.
- salicylic acid.
The content of essential oil in the above-ground part (grass) of wild marigold reaches 0.37%.
In terms of the amount of flavonoids, the aerial part is richer than the pharmacopoeial raw material (inflorescences).
Harvesting and storage of raw materials
Harvesting. The raw materials are harvested at the beginning of flowering, while the baskets do not scatter when pressed. The baskets are torn off or cut off at the very base, with the rest of the peduncle no longer than 1 cm.
Security measures. To ensure self-renewal, at least 20% of well-developed specimens should be left on each thickets.
Drying. It is dried in well-ventilated attics or in dryers at a temperature not higher than 45 ºС, scattering a thin layer.
Storage. It is stored in dry cool rooms, on racks packed in plywood boxes lined with paper or paper bags according to the rules for storing essential oil raw materials.
External signs of raw materials
Solid round-conical baskets without peduncles or with remnants of it no longer than 1 cm. The cover of baskets is multi-row, the edges of its leaves are membranous, transparent. The bed of the inflorescence is conical, bare, hollow. The flowers are all tubular, with quadridentate corolla. The colour of the tubular flowers is yellowish green, the wrappers are greyish green. The smell is strong, pleasant. The taste is spicy, bitter.
Properties and application
Pharmacotherapeutic group. Anti-inflammatory and antiseptic agent.
The pharmacological properties of wild marigold
Wild marigold flowers and herb possess:
- anti-inflammatory properties.
The composition of the essential oil differs from the composition of the essential oil of chamomile with the low content of chamazulene. Therefore, wild marigold is used in medicine only for external use:
Application of wild marigold
Wild marigold flowers are used as:
- anti-inflammatory agent in the form of infusion topically for lotions, baths, enemas, rinses and poultices.
Hypersensitivity to chamomile, as well as to plants of the aster family (Compositae), such as arnica, ragweed, common yarrow, tansy, wormwood, asters, chrysanthemums.