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Specification & Spread

Violet herb — herba violae
Wild pansy — viola tricolor l.
Field violet — viola arvensis murr.
Violet family — violaceae
Other names: heartsease, garden rocket, saintpaulia.

It is a small single or biennial herbaceous plant with 10-30 cm tall.
The stems are erect or ascending, simple or branched.
The leaves are alternate, naked, the lower - broadly ovate, long-petiolate, the upper - oblong, almost sessile, with dissected stipules.
The flowers are solitary, zygomorphic, pentamerous, on long (2-5 cm) pedicels.
In the field violet, all petals are yellow or white, the rim is equal to or slightly longer than the calyx.
In the wild pansy, the corolla is longer than the calyx, the petals are multi-colored, usually the top two are dark purple, the bottom three are colored lighter, blue, white or yellow, and the central bottom petal is orange-yellow. Other shades are possible.
The fruit is an oblong-ovate capsule, opening at the seams into 3 leaves.

It blooms from April to autumn, the fruits ripen from June.

Spreading. Both species are common in the European part of the country, field violet is also found in Western Siberia. The main blanks on an industrial scale are held in Belarus, Ukraine. In a smaller volume of the raw materials harvested in the Vladimir, Nizhny Novgorod and Tver regions.

Habitat. It grows on fields, meadows, on open hills, among thickets of bushes, on forest edges and glades (wild pansy); among crops, on steam fields as a common field and garden weed (field violet).

Composition

The chemical composition

In the aboveground parts of both species there are contained:

  • flavonoids - rutin, violantin, C-glycosides: orientin, vitexin, etc.;
  • anthocyanins (violin);
  • salicylic acid methyl ester;
  • carotenoids;
  • saponins;
  • mucus (up to 25%).

Harvesting and storage of raw materials

Harvesting. Violets are harvested during flowering in the first half of summer. Flowering above-ground parts of the plant are cut with a knife at a distance of 5-10 cm from the ground, discarding the lower bare parts of the stems. Each type of violet is collected separately.

Impurities. Blue cow wheat (Melampyrum nemorosum L.) from birdwort family (Scrophulariaceae), is not allowed to harvest. It has a higher (up to 50 cm) stem, double-lipped yellow flowers with purple bracts gathered in a spike inflorescence, and lanceolate leaves located opposite.
Security measures. The frequency of harvesting of the raw materials on the same areas for 2 years.

Drying. Under a canopy with good ventilation or in attics under an iron roof. The raw materials are spread out a layer of 5-7 cm and periodically mixed. The raw materials are considered dried if the stems break easily when bent. The yield of dry raw materials 20-22%. Artificial drying is allowed at a temperature not higher than 40 ºС.

Storage. Ii is stored in dry and well-ventilated areas.

External signs of raw materials

Whole raw materials

A mixture of leafy stems with flowers and fruits of different degrees of development and individual stems, whole or crushed leaves, flowers, fruits.
The stems are simple or branched, slightly ribbed, hollow inside, up to 25 cm long.
The leaves are alternate, usually petiolate, simple, with two large pinnate or pinworm stipules; the lower ones are broadly ovate, the upper ones are oblong, obtuse-toothed or large-horned along the edge, up to 6 cm long, up to 2 cm wide.
The flowers are solitary, irregular. A cup of 5 green sepals. The corolla is of 5 unequal petals, the lower one is larger than the others, with a spur at the base.

The fruit is a single-shaped oblong-ovoid box, revealing three leaves.
The seeds are oval, smooth.
The leaf colour is green; the stems - green or light green; the upper petals - purple with 5-7 dark stripes, dark blue, pale yellow or pale purple, medium petals - blue or light yellow, bottom - yellow or light yellow; seeds - light brown.
The smell is weak. The taste is sweetish with a flavour of mucus.


Milled raw materials

The pieces of stems (green or light green), leaves (green), flowers (blue, purple and light yellow) of various shapes, passing through a sieve with holes of 7 mm diameter.
The smell is weak. The taste is sweetish with a flavour of mucus.

Properties and application

The pharmacological properties of violets

Violet herb possesses:

  • expectorant and
  • diuretic properties. 

The roots have:

  • emetic action attributed to the alkaloid to violaemetin. 

Under the influence of violet preparations:

  • increased secretion of bronchial glands and
  • sputum liquefaction occurs,
  • its allocation is facilitated. 

Application of violet

The herb of violet is used as an infusion as a diuretic agent and expectorant for:

  • coughing,
  • whooping cough,
  • bronchitis. 

Recently, the pharmacological tests have shown a significant antiallergic activity of medicines prepared from the herb of violet.
Due to the variety of biologically active substances, wild pansy herb is successfully used in cosmetology: in the form of infusion and lotions:

  • with oily seborrhea of the face and scalp;
  • in the treatment of abrasions, pustular diseases.

Contraindications

  • Hypersensitivity to the preparation, 
  • gastritis and gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer in the period of exacerbation, 
  • cholelithiasis, 
  • pregnancy, 
  • lactation, 
  • children under 12 years of age.

Wild pansy. Field violet


Specification & Spread

Violet herb — herba violae
Wild pansy — viola tricolor l.
Field violet — viola arvensis murr.
Violet family — violaceae
Other names: heartsease, garden rocket, saintpaulia.

It is a small single or biennial herbaceous plant with 10-30 cm tall.
The stems are erect or ascending, simple or branched.
The leaves are alternate, naked, the lower - broadly ovate, long-petiolate, the upper - oblong, almost sessile, with dissected stipules.
The flowers are solitary, zygomorphic, pentamerous, on long (2-5 cm) pedicels.
In the field violet, all petals are yellow or white, the rim is equal to or slightly longer than the calyx.
In the wild pansy, the corolla is longer than the calyx, the petals are multi-colored, usually the top two are dark purple, the bottom three are colored lighter, blue, white or yellow, and the central bottom petal is orange-yellow. Other shades are possible.
The fruit is an oblong-ovate capsule, opening at the seams into 3 leaves.

It blooms from April to autumn, the fruits ripen from June.

Spreading. Both species are common in the European part of the country, field violet is also found in Western Siberia. The main blanks on an industrial scale are held in Belarus, Ukraine. In a smaller volume of the raw materials harvested in the Vladimir, Nizhny Novgorod and Tver regions.

Habitat. It grows on fields, meadows, on open hills, among thickets of bushes, on forest edges and glades (wild pansy); among crops, on steam fields as a common field and garden weed (field violet).

Composition

The chemical composition

In the aboveground parts of both species there are contained:

  • flavonoids - rutin, violantin, C-glycosides: orientin, vitexin, etc.;
  • anthocyanins (violin);
  • salicylic acid methyl ester;
  • carotenoids;
  • saponins;
  • mucus (up to 25%).

Harvesting and storage of raw materials

Harvesting. Violets are harvested during flowering in the first half of summer. Flowering above-ground parts of the plant are cut with a knife at a distance of 5-10 cm from the ground, discarding the lower bare parts of the stems. Each type of violet is collected separately.

Impurities. Blue cow wheat (Melampyrum nemorosum L.) from birdwort family (Scrophulariaceae), is not allowed to harvest. It has a higher (up to 50 cm) stem, double-lipped yellow flowers with purple bracts gathered in a spike inflorescence, and lanceolate leaves located opposite.
Security measures. The frequency of harvesting of the raw materials on the same areas for 2 years.

Drying. Under a canopy with good ventilation or in attics under an iron roof. The raw materials are spread out a layer of 5-7 cm and periodically mixed. The raw materials are considered dried if the stems break easily when bent. The yield of dry raw materials 20-22%. Artificial drying is allowed at a temperature not higher than 40 ºС.

Storage. Ii is stored in dry and well-ventilated areas.

External signs of raw materials

Whole raw materials

A mixture of leafy stems with flowers and fruits of different degrees of development and individual stems, whole or crushed leaves, flowers, fruits.
The stems are simple or branched, slightly ribbed, hollow inside, up to 25 cm long.
The leaves are alternate, usually petiolate, simple, with two large pinnate or pinworm stipules; the lower ones are broadly ovate, the upper ones are oblong, obtuse-toothed or large-horned along the edge, up to 6 cm long, up to 2 cm wide.
The flowers are solitary, irregular. A cup of 5 green sepals. The corolla is of 5 unequal petals, the lower one is larger than the others, with a spur at the base.

The fruit is a single-shaped oblong-ovoid box, revealing three leaves.
The seeds are oval, smooth.
The leaf colour is green; the stems - green or light green; the upper petals - purple with 5-7 dark stripes, dark blue, pale yellow or pale purple, medium petals - blue or light yellow, bottom - yellow or light yellow; seeds - light brown.
The smell is weak. The taste is sweetish with a flavour of mucus.


Milled raw materials

The pieces of stems (green or light green), leaves (green), flowers (blue, purple and light yellow) of various shapes, passing through a sieve with holes of 7 mm diameter.
The smell is weak. The taste is sweetish with a flavour of mucus.

Properties and application

The pharmacological properties of violets

Violet herb possesses:

  • expectorant and
  • diuretic properties. 

The roots have:

  • emetic action attributed to the alkaloid to violaemetin. 

Under the influence of violet preparations:

  • increased secretion of bronchial glands and
  • sputum liquefaction occurs,
  • its allocation is facilitated. 

Application of violet

The herb of violet is used as an infusion as a diuretic agent and expectorant for:

  • coughing,
  • whooping cough,
  • bronchitis. 

Recently, the pharmacological tests have shown a significant antiallergic activity of medicines prepared from the herb of violet.
Due to the variety of biologically active substances, wild pansy herb is successfully used in cosmetology: in the form of infusion and lotions:

  • with oily seborrhea of the face and scalp;
  • in the treatment of abrasions, pustular diseases.

Contraindications

  • Hypersensitivity to the preparation, 
  • gastritis and gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer in the period of exacerbation, 
  • cholelithiasis, 
  • pregnancy, 
  • lactation, 
  • children under 12 years of age.

 
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